Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer

A preliminary study of the effect of PPAR- γ agonist from Myristica fragrans houtt seed extract on the biogenesis of rat infant’s brain mitochondria and D1 dopamine receptor


Background: Myristica fragrans (nutmeg) seed extract (NuSE) has been reported as a ligand for Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPAR)-γ due to hypoglycemic and antidiabetic effects. The recent study also finds the role of PGC-1α as the regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis and the co-activator of PPAR-γ as well. Dopamine 1 receptor (D1DR) is generally distributed in the brain with a various function, such as cognitive function. As a preliminary study, we explore a possibility the current knowledge of the mechanism of NuSE enhance dopamine 1 receptor via neuronal mitochondrial biogenesis on infant rat brain tissue. Aim: This study was aimed to investigate whether PPAR- γ agonist from NuSE can induce expression brain PGC-1α and D1DR (D1A and D1B). Methods: Seven male rats (4 weeks) as a control and another seven male rats (4 weeks) was giving 8.1 mg NuSE /day by gavage within 12 weeks. End of the day, the rats were sacrificed, and the forebrain was extraction. Expression mRNA PGC 1-α and DIDR  were analyzed. Results: The result showed significantly higher relatives expression of mRNA PGC-1α and mRNA D1DR in NuSE group (p<0.05). Conclusion: The findings provide preliminary support that PPAR-γ agonist from NuSE may offer a novel for the study brain mitochondrial biogenesis related mechanism of signaling dopamine receptor.



  1. Jaiswal P, Kumar P, Singh VK, Singh DK. Biological effects of Myristica fragrans. Annu Rev Biomed Sci. 2009;11(August 2015):21–9.
  2. Lestari K, Hwang J, Kariadi S, Wijaya A, Trihanggono A, Subarnas A, et al. S Creening for Ppar Γ Agonist From M Yristica Fragrans H Outt Seeds for the Treatment of T Ype 2 Diabetes By in. Med Heal Sci J. 2012;12:7–15.
  3. Kiyofuji K, Kurauchi Y, Hisatsune A, Seki T, Mishima S, Katsuki H. A natural compound macelignan protects midbrain dopaminergic neurons from inflammatory degeneration via microglial arginase-1 expression. Eur J Pharmacol [Internet]. 2015;760:129–35. Available from:
  4. Shepherd JD, Huganir RL. The Cell Biology of Synaptic Plasticity: AMPA Receptor Trafficking. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol [Internet]. 2007;23(1):613–43. Available from:
  5. Cheng A, Hou Y, Mattson MP. Mitochondria and Neuroplasticity. ASN Neuro [Internet]. 2010;2(5):AN20100019. Available from:
  6. Finck BN, Kelly DP. PGC-1 coactivators: Inducible regulators of energy metabolism in health and disease. J Clin Invest. 2006;116(3):615–22.
  7. Hospital M. BRAIN M I T O C H O N D R I A I . Isolation of Bovine Brain Mitochondria. (19):293–307.
  8. Scarpulla RC. Metabolic control of mitochondrial biogenesis through the PGC-1 family regulatory network. Biochim Biohys Acta. 2011;1813(7):1269–78.
  9. Cuezva JM, Pascual-Leone AM, Patel MS. Endocrine and Biochemical Development of the Fetus and Neonate. 2013;316. Available from:
  10. Saxton WM, Hollenbeck PJ. The axonal transport of mitochondria. J Cell Sci [Internet]. 2012;125(9):2095–104. Available from:
  11. Dedov VN, Dedova I V, Armati PJ. Transport of mitochondria during axonogenesis. IUBMB Life [Internet]. 2000;49(6):549–52. Available from:
  12. Beaulieu J-M, Gainetdinov RR. The physiology, signaling, and pharmacology of dopamine receptors. Pharmacol Rev. 2011;63(1):182–217.
  13. Savitz J, Solms M, Ramesar R. The molecular genetics of cognition: Dopamine, COMT and BDNF. Genes, Brain Behav. 2006;5(4):311–28.

How to Cite

Veronica, F., Lubis, L., S, A., Fitri, L. L., Rizal, A., P, A., Gunawan, H., Lesmana, R., Dandan, K. L., & Supratman, U. (2018). A preliminary study of the effect of PPAR- γ agonist from Myristica fragrans houtt seed extract on the biogenesis of rat infant’s brain mitochondria and D1 dopamine receptor. Bali Medical Journal, 7(3).