Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer

Correlation between duration of estrogen exposure with grading of breast cancer


Introduction: Estrogen is known to contribute significantly to the formation and growth of breast tumors. High levels of serum estrogen and long-term exposure to estrogen are associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. The mechanism of estrogen involvement in the process of carcinogenesis is not known for certain. Many things are risk factors for breast cancer, between early menarche, slow menopause, with families with a history of breast cancer, obesity and a high-fat diet, age of upward productivity, first pregnancy in old age, and hormones. The purpose of this study was to see whether there is a long relationship of estradiol exposure to breast cancer grading.

Methods: Study design using cross sectional model, a sample of all breast cancer patients treated in the sub-section of surgical oncology rs dr muwardi March-mei 2016 as many as 108 with the criteria of breast cancer erα positive. Analysis by using Pearson correlation to see the strength of relationship between variables and see the presence or absence of long exposure relationship with grading by using ono-way ANOVA.

Result: 108 samples with ERα positive breast cancer, age 31 - 85 years, with longest exposure >40 years. Age of menarche, history of pregnancy, first childbirth, age of menopause, family history, and grading showed a relationship with prolonged exposure to estradiol, p<0.05. The longer the estradiol exposure of 39.89 years indicates the presence of high grade (grade III), p-value <0.05.

Conclusion: The duration of estradiol exposure in breast cancer patients will affect the grading of cancer.


  1. Gupta D. Correlation of Hormone Receptor Expression with Histologic Parameters in Benign and Malignant Breast Tumors. Iranian Journal of Pathology. 2015;10(1):23–34.
  2. Liu Y, et al. Physical Activity from menarche to First pregnancy and Risk of Breast Cancer. International Jornal of Cancer. 2016;139(6):1223-30.
  3. Bulut N, & Altundag K. Does estrogen receptor determination affect prognosis in early stage breast cancers ?. Int J Clin Exp Med. 2015;8(11):21454–21459.
  4. Samavat H, Kurzer, MS. Estrogen Metabolism an Breast Cancer. Cancer Lett. 2015;356 (2):231-243.
  5. Beral V, et al. Menarche, menopause and breast cancer risk : individual participant meta-analysis, including 118.964 women with breast cancer from 117 epidemiological studies. Lancet Oncol. 2012;13:1141-51
  6. Johnson N, Dudbridge F, et al. Genetics variations at CYP3A is Associated with Age at menarche and Breast Cancer Risk: a Case Control Study. Breast Cancer Research. 2016;16(3):R51.
  7. Ambrosone CB, Zirpoli G, et al. Important Role of Menarche in Deevelopment of Estrogen Receptor-Negative Breast Cancer in African American Women. JNCI J Natl Cancer Inst. 2015;107(9):1-7.
  8. Jones M, Schoemaker M, Wright L, McFadden E, Griffin J, Thomas D, Hemming J, Wright K, Ashworth A, Swerdlow A. Menopausal hormone therapy and breast cancer: what is the true size of the increased risk?. British Journal of Cancer. 2016;115(5):607-615.
  9. Moore SC, et al. Endogeneous Estrogens, Estrogen Metabolites, and Breast Cancer Risk in Postmenopausal Chinese Women. JNCI J Natl Cancer Inst. 2016;108(10):1-9.
  10. Fuhrman BJ, et al. Estrogen Metabolism and Risk of Breast Cancer In Postmenopausal Women. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2012;104(4):326-329.
  11. Hollestelle A. et al. Etiology of hormone receptor positive breast cancer differs by levels of histologic grade and proliferation. International Journal of Cancer. 2018;143(4):746–757.
  12. Mahmood H. Association of Menopausal Status with Pathological Features of Tumor in Stage I to III A Breast Cancer Patients Treated With Upfront Modified Radical Mastectomy. Journal of Cancer Prevention & Current Research. 2015;4(1):12-18.
  13. Salagame U, Banks E, Sitas F, and Canfell K. Menopausal hormone therapy use and breast cancer risk in Australia: Findings from the New South Wales Cancer, Lifestyle and Evaluation of Risk study. International Journal of Cancer. 2015;138(8):1905-1914.

How to Cite

Soewoto, W., Mudigdo, A., Aryandono, T., & Dirgahayu, P. (2018). Correlation between duration of estrogen exposure with grading of breast cancer. Bali Medical Journal, 7(3).




Search Panel