Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer

The frequent of fish intake can increase the chance of Child intelligence of aged 9-10 years in Surakarta

  • Muhammad Umar Syarifuddin Al-Lawi ,
  • Kusnandar Kusnandar ,
  • Adi Magna Patriadi Nuhriawangsa ,


Background: Healthy, intelligent, and highly competitive children are the asset of a nation. Indonesia as one of the developing countries which level of fish consumption is still low, including children fish intake. Children fish consumption in Surakarta, Central Java Province has potential to improve. Growth and brain development persist in childhood and adolescence at 9-10 years. That age range is the beginning of the peak growth (growth spurt) that requires the intake of fat and protein to support the growth and development of the brain and fish is a potent food source of protein and omega-3 fatty acids.

Aim: This study aims to analyze the relationship between fish consumption frequency and fish type with children intelligence level at aged 9-10 years.

Method: The design of this study was cross-sectional involving 112 elementary school children grade 4 in Surakarta, Central Java, Indonesia. Data were collected using questionnaires, 1 x 24-hour food recall form, semi-quantitative FFQ (Frequency Food Questionnaire), anthropometry, and intelligence level using Culture Fair Intelligence Test (CFIT-2A) method. The results were analyzed by multivariate analysis with multiple logistic regression.

Results: Multiple logistic regression analysis on the intelligence level of children aged 9-10 years showed that the frequency of fish consumption has a value of p = 0.170 and fish species has a value of p = 0.259, while confounding factors in the form of mother education and income of parents have their respective p-value of 0.011 and 0.171.

Conclusion: There is no significant correlation between the frequency of fish consumption and type of fish to the intelligence level of children aged 9-10 years (p> 0,05). However, the probability of subjects whose frequency of consumption of fish >3 times/week to have intelligence in the intelligent category greater than 1.81 times the subject consuming fish ≤3 times/week, after controlling maternal education factors and income parents.


  1. Liu, Jianghong, Ying Cui, Linda Li, Lezhou Wu, Alexandra Hanlon, Jennifer Pinto Martin, Adrian Raine, Joseph R. Hibbeln. 2017. The mediating role of sleep in the fish consumption – cognitive functioning relationship: a cohort study. Scientific Reports Volume 7, article number: 17961(2017). doi : 10.1038/s41598-017-17520-w.
  2. Aberg, Maria AI, Nils Aberg, Jonas Brisman, Rosita Sundberg, Anna Winkvist, Kjell Torén. 2009. Fish intake of Swedish male adolescents is a predictor of cognitive performance. Acta Paediatr. 2009 Mar ; 98(3) : 555-60. doi: 10.1111/j.1651-2227.2008.01103.x.
  3. Brown, Timothy T. dan Jernigan, Terry L. 2012. Brain Development during the preschool years. Neuropsychol Rev. December 2012; 22(4):313-333. doi : 10.1007/s11065-012-9214-1.
  4. Smithers LG, Golley RK, Mittinty MN, Brazionis L, Northstone K, Emmett P, Lynch JW. 2012. Dietary Patterns at 6, 15 and 24 Months of Age are Associated with IQ at 8 Years of Age. Eur J. Epidemiol. 2012 Jul;27(7):525-35. doi: 10.1007/s10654-012-9715-5.
  5. Waysima, Ujang Sumarwan, Ali Khomsan, and Fransiska R Zakaria. 2010. Mother’s Preference Towards Fish Significantly Increase Children’s Appreciation for Consuming Fish. Journal of Nutrition and Food, 2010, 5(3): 197–204.
  6. Rahmawaty, S., Charlton, K., Lyons-Wall, P. and Meyer, B. J. 2013. Factors that influence consumption of fish and omega-3 enriched foods: a survey of Australian families with young children. Nutrition and Dietetics, 70 (4), 286-293.
  7. Higuchi, Angie, Jorge Dávalos, dan Martín Hernani-Merino. 2016. Theory of planned behavior applied to fish consumption in modern Metropolitan Lima. Food Science and Technology (Campinas). [online]. Inpress. Epub November 24, 2016.
  8. Gandotra, Roopma, Shalini Sharma, Meenakshi Koul, Sweta Gupta. 2012. Effect of Chilling and Freezing on Fish Muscle. Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences Volume 2, Issue 5 (Sep-Oct. 2012), PP 05-09.
  9. Statistic Indonesia (BPS). 2014. National Socioeconomic Survey (SUSENAS) Quarter I-2013 and Quarter I-2014. [accessed on March 17, 2018].
  10. Department of Marine and Fisheries of Central Java Province (DKP-Central Java). 2013. Potential of Marine and Fishery of Central Java Province. [accessed on February 25, 2018]
  11. Baliwati, Yayuk Farida and Putri, Yulmiaris Dwi Okto. 2012. Fish Consumption in Indonesia Year of 2005—2011. Journal of Nutrition and Food, November 2012, 7(3): 181—188.
  12. Papalia, D.E., Olds SW, and Feldman RD. 2008. Human Development (Psikologi Perkembangan) Chapter I-IV Edition IX. Jakarta : Penerbit Kencana.
  13. Riyanto, Agus. 2011. Application of Health Research Methodology. Yogyakarta: Nuha Medika.
  14. Webb, Rachel. 2017. An investigation of young adults (18-35 years) eating habits about BMI and diet quality, and the relationship between eating habits in adolescent and young adulthood [Dissertation Academic Paper]. Wales: Department of Healthcare Sciences and Food, Cardiff Metropolitan University.
  15. Institute for Measurement and Education of Psychology (LPSP3) University of Indonesia. 2009. Manual Book for Culture Fair Intelligence Test (CFIT) Scale 2 Forms A and Form B. Faculty of Psychology, University of Indonesia. Depok.
  16. Tacon, AGJ dan Metian M. 2009. Fishing for feed or fishing for food: increasing global competition for small pelagic forage fish. Ambio 38, 294–302.
  17. Ozogul, Y., Ozogul F., Cicek E., Polat A., Kuley E. 2009. Fat content and fatty acid compositions of 34 marine water fish species from the Mediterranean Sea. International Journal Food Science Nutrition. 2009 Sep;60(6):464-75.
  18. Ohrvik, Veronica, Anna von Malmborg, Irene Mattisson, Soren Wrestling dan Christina Astrand. 2012. Fish, shellfish and fish products - analysis of nutrients by. The National Food Agency Report Series No 1/2012.
  19. Osibona, AO., Kusemiju K., dan GR Akande. 2009. Fatty Acid Composition And Amino Acid Profile Of Two Freshwater Species, African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) and Tilapia (Tilapia zillii). African Journal of Food Agriculture Nutrition and Development, January 2009; Vol. 9 No.1.
  20. Gale, C. R., Martyn, C. N., Marriott, L. D., Limond, J., Crozier, S., Inskip, H. M., et al. 2009. Dietary patterns in infancy and cognitive and neuropsychological function in childhood. J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 50(7):816–823. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2008.02029.x.
  21. Emmet, Pauline M., Louise R. Jones, Kate Northstone. 2015. Dietary patterns in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Nutrition Reviews Vol. 73(S3):207–230. doi: 10.1093/nutrit/nuv055.
  22. Hackman, DA., Farah MJ., Meaney MJ. 2010. Socioeconomic status and the brain: mechanistic insights from human and animal research. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2010; 11:651–659.
  23. Can, Mehmet Ferit, Aytekin Gunlu, Hayriye Yesim Can. 2015. Fish Consumption Preferences and Factors Influencing it. Food Sci. Technol, Campinas, 35(2): 339-346, Abr.-Jun. 2015.
  24. Dey, Madan Mohan, Yolanda T. Garcia, Praduman Kumar, Somying Piumsombun, Muhammad Sirajul Haque, Luping Li, Alias Radam, Athula Senaratne, Nguyen Tri Khiem and Sonny Koeshendrajana. 2008. Demand for fish in Asia: a cross-country analysis. The Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, 52, pp. 321–338. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8489.2008.00418.x.
  25. Veena, Sargoor R., Bhavya G Hegde, Somashekara Ramachandraiah,Ghattu V Krishnaveni, Caroline HD Fall, Krishnamachari Srinivasan. 2014. Relationship between adiposity and cognitive performance in 9-10 year old children in south India. Arch Dis Child. 2014 Feb; 99(2): 126–134.
  26. Chowdhury, Sutanu Dutta dan Tusharkanti Ghosh. 2011. Nutritional and socioeconomic status in cognitive development of Santal children of Purulia district, India. Ann Hum Biol Volume 38, 2011 Pages 188-193.
  27. Abu-Ouf, Noran M. dan Mohammed M Jan. 2014. The Influence of Fish Oil on Neurological Development and Function. REVIEW. Can J Neurol Sci. 2014; 41: 13-18 doi: 10.1017/S031716710001619X.

How to Cite

Al-Lawi, M. U. S., Kusnandar, K., & Nuhriawangsa, A. M. P. (2019). The frequent of fish intake can increase the chance of Child intelligence of aged 9-10 years in Surakarta. Bali Medical Journal, 8(3), 778–782.




Search Panel

Muhammad Umar Syarifuddin Al-Lawi
Google Scholar
BMJ Journal

Kusnandar Kusnandar
Google Scholar
BMJ Journal

Adi Magna Patriadi Nuhriawangsa
Google Scholar
BMJ Journal