Introduction: Leprosy is a chronic granulomatous infection with a variety of clinical spectrum caused by Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae) that is highly influenced by host immune response. In leprosy, vitamin D acts as an immunomodulator through a VDR-mediated antimicrobial pathway that affects the innate immune system to bacterial killing. M. leprae inhibits VDR activity through the down-regulation of CYP27B1. Elevated 1.25(OH)2D levels are required to modulate cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) production, which leads to reduced 25(OH)D level. This study aimed to analyze the difference in serum vitamin D level between leprosy patients and healthy people.
Methods: This research was an analytical observational study with a cross-sectional design involving 20 patients with new cases of leprosy and 20 controls. The diagnosis of leprosy was confirmed through physical examination and laboratory examination. We conducted blood sampling and measurement of serum vitamin D (25(OH)D) level in both groups using the chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) method. The collected data were then processed and analyzed statistically using the Mann-Whitney test.
Result: In this study, we found that the mean serum vitamin D level in leprosy patients (22.27 Â± 5.418 ng/mL) was lower than controls (33.00 Â± 1.913 ng/mL), and the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05). The mean serum vitamin D level in male leprosy patients (23.69 Â± 4.034 ng/mL) was higher than females (16.55 Â± 7.081 ng/mL), and was highest in patients aged 36 â€“ 45 years (25.314 Â± 2.2945 ng/mL).
Conclusion: Serum vitamin D level was significantly lower in leprosy patients than in controls. Serum vitamin D level in leprosy patients was higher in the male group and was highest in patients aged 36 â€“ 45 years.