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The expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-10 in the diabetes mellitus condition induced by the combination of spirulina and chitosan


Background: Rapid wound healing is needed after tooth extraction treatment so that prosthodontics treatment can be done immediately. However, systemic diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, can inhibit the wound healing process. The state of hyperglycemia in people with diabetes mellitus can interfere with the function of macrophages and neutrophils. This condition can cause an imbalance in the cytokines IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-10 that are produced by macrophages and thus will affect the wound healing process. Spirulina and chitosan are two natural substances that have been proven to have anti-inflammatory properties. This study was aimed to determine whether the combination of 12% spirulina and 20% chitosan can accelerate wound healing through its intervention in cytokines IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-10.

Method: The samples used were 36 Wistar rats suffering from diabetes mellitus and divided into control groups induced by CMC Na base gel and treatment groups induced by the combination of 12% spirulina and 20% chitosan in the socket. These 2 groups were further divided into groups terminated on one day, three days and seven days post-extraction.

Results: The amount of IL-1β and TNF-α in the treatment groups is lower than that of the control group. Meanwhile, the treatment group of IL-10 showed an increase in IL-10 levels. 

Conclusion: The combination of 12% spirulina and 20% chitosan can accelerate wound healing. They are decreasing the amount of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α as well as increasing the number of anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10.


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How to Cite

Hendrijantini, N., Sitalaksmi, R. M., Ari, M. D. A., Hidayat, T. J., Putri, P. A. N., & Sukandar, D. (2020). The expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-10 in the diabetes mellitus condition induced by the combination of spirulina and chitosan. Bali Medical Journal, 9(1), 22–26.




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Nike Hendrijantini
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Ratri Maya Sitalaksmi
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Muhammad Dimas Aditya Ari
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Tiffany Josephine Hidayat
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Prisca Agustina Nurcahyan Putri
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Daniel Sukandar
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