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The analysis of hand maximum voluntary contraction and its associated factors among hemodialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease patient in Jordan


Introduction: Maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) of handgrip strength is considered a reliable subjective global assessment tool and has been used as predictive tools for human body performance. The usefulness MVC for continuous assessment of muscle strength in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patient's hemodialysis patients need to be investigated.

Methods: The research involved 100 CKD patients that underwent routine hemodialysis in Jordan. The subject's demographic and anthropometric data were collected. Subjects also tested for MVC using a dynamometer. The data was analyzed to find the relationship between each of the independent factors, including age, body mass index (BMI), handgrip circumference (HGC), forearm circumference (FAC), to the maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). Linear and nonlinear modeling were generated to estimate the effect of each independent variable.

Results: Subjects ages varied from 20-70 years old, for males mean age was 46.48 years old, mean weight 83.74 kg, mean height 167.24 cm, mean BMI 30.28 kg/m2, mean handgrip circumference 21.34 cm, and mean forearm circumference 26.13 cm. For females, the mean age was 47.62 years old, weight 77.28 kg, mean height 162.96 cm, mean BMI 29.24 kg/m2, mean handgrip circumference 20.09 cm, and mean forearm circumference 24.83 cm. For males, the highest MVC Value was 49.3 lbf, while for females, the highest MVC Value was 38.6 lbf, and both from the group aged <30 years old. ANOVA revealed that age was the primary factor that was significantly associated with MVC.

Conclusion: The age has major and significant effects on maximum voluntary contraction in CKD patients.


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How to Cite

A. Almomani, H., Almomani, T., Almomani, M., kana’an, S., & Al-Khawaldeh, A. (2020). The analysis of hand maximum voluntary contraction and its associated factors among hemodialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease patient in Jordan. Bali Medical Journal, 9(3), 823–829.




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Hesham A. Almomani
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Thaker Almomani
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Marya Almomani
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Soha kana’an
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Ahmed Al-Khawaldeh
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