ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Clinical presentation and outcome of COVID-19 infection in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: a preliminary data from a tertiary hospital in Jakarta during the early days of the pandemic

Ida Ayu Kshanti , Giri Aji, Marina Epriliawati, Md Ikhsan Mokoagow, Jerry Nasarudin, Nadya Magfira, Anggraini Permata Sari, Annela Manurung, Aryan Yohanes Djojo, Elizabeth Yasmine Wardoyo, Martha Iskandar, Nikko Darnindro, Radhiyatam Mardiyah

Ida Ayu Kshanti
Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes, Department of Internal Medicine, Fatmawati General Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia; Diabetes Integrated Care Center, Fatmawati General Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia. Email: madeidaayu@yahoo.com

Giri Aji
Department of Internal Medicine, Fatmawati General Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia.

Marina Epriliawati
Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes, Department of Internal Medicine, Fatmawati General Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia; Diabetes Integrated Care Center, Fatmawati General Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia

Md Ikhsan Mokoagow
Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes, Department of Internal Medicine, Fatmawati General Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia; Diabetes Integrated Care Center, Fatmawati General Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia

Jerry Nasarudin
Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes, Department of Internal Medicine, Fatmawati General Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia; Diabetes Integrated Care Center, Fatmawati General Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia

Nadya Magfira
Diabetes Integrated Care Center, Fatmawati General Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia

Anggraini Permata Sari
Department of Internal Medicine, Fatmawati General Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia

Annela Manurung
Department of Internal Medicine, Fatmawati General Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia

Aryan Yohanes Djojo
Department of Internal Medicine, Fatmawati General Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia

Elizabeth Yasmine Wardoyo
Department of Internal Medicine, Fatmawati General Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia

Martha Iskandar
Department of Internal Medicine, Fatmawati General Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia

Nikko Darnindro
Department of Internal Medicine, Fatmawati General Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia

Radhiyatam Mardiyah
Department of Internal Medicine, Fatmawati General Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia
Online First: December 01, 2020 | Cite this Article
Kshanti, I., Aji, G., Epriliawati, M., Mokoagow, M., Nasarudin, J., Magfira, N., Sari, A., Manurung, A., Djojo, A., Wardoyo, E., Iskandar, M., Darnindro, N., Mardiyah, R. 2020. Clinical presentation and outcome of COVID-19 infection in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: a preliminary data from a tertiary hospital in Jakarta during the early days of the pandemic. Bali Medical Journal 9(3): 663-669. DOI:10.15562/bmj.v9i3.1969


Introduction. This study aimed to review the clinical characteristics and outcomes of COVID-19 patients presented with in-hospital hyperglycemia or pre-existing type 2 diabetes (T2DM).

Methods. This is a retrospective study conducted in Fatmawati General Hospital, Indonesia, from March 18th-Apr 30th, 2020. We reviewed medical records of 27 COVID-19 patients presented with either in-hospital hyperglycemia (11, 12.2%) or pre-existing T2DM (16, 17.8%) from a total of 90 confirmed COVID-19 cases admitted in our hospital.

Results. Critical conditions occurred in 50% of T2DM and 54.55% of the in-hospital hyperglycemia group. Mortality was documented in 68.75% of T2DM and 81.82% of in-hospital hyperglycemia group. Hypoglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, lactic acidosis and ketosis were found in 12.5%, 25%, 18.75%, and 25% of individuals with T2DM, respectively, resulting in a high mortality rate. Meanwhile, diabetes-related complications were rare among the in-hospital hyperglycemia group. However, respiratory failure (45.45% vs. 6.25%) and septic shock (27.27% vs. 6.25%) were more frequent than in the T2DM group.

Conclusion. In this preliminary study, a high mortality rate was documented among COVID-19 patients with preexisting T2DM and in-hospital hyperglycemia. In T2DM subjects, diabetes related-complications contributed to a higher mortality rate, while in-hospital hyperglycemia group, respiratory failure and septic shock were more frequent.

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