Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer

Dynamics of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells, M1 Microglia/Macrophage, and Fractalkine in Ischemic Stroke Patients


Background: About 85% of strokes are ischemic strokes, caused by occlusion of cerebral artery that induced brain inflammation. A deep understanding of ischemic stroke mechanism will lead to better neurorestorative treatment. Objective: This study investigates the dynamics of human mesenchymal stem cells, fractalkine, and M1 microglia/macrophage in ischemic stroke patients. Results: We found the same fractalkine levels and M1 microglia/macrophage cells on patients with stroke onset 0 to 14 days, then decrease until 30 days of stroke onset. MSCs was increase 7 days after stroke onset, peaked by 14 days, then decreased until 30 days after stroke ischemic onset. Conclusions: This study found an interaction between microglia/macrophage, fractalkine, and MSCs on ischemic stroke patients, so therapeutic strategy could be developed.


  1. (1) Kisialiou A, Pelone G, Carrizzo A, et al. 2012. Blood biomarkers role in acute ischemic stroke patients: higher is worse or better?. Immunity & Ageing 9:22.
  2. (2) Ransohoff RM and Perry VH, 2009. Microglial physiology: unique stimuli, specialized responses. Annu Rev Immunol. 27:119-45.
  3. (3) Durafourt BA, Moore CS, Zammit DA, et al. 2012. Comparison of Polarization Properties of Human Adult Microglia and Blood-Derived Macrophages. Glia 60:717–727.
  4. (4) Paolicelli RC, Bisht K, Tremblay ME. 2014. Fractalkine regulation of microglial physiology and consequences on the brain and behavior. Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience. Volume 8. Article 129.
  5. (5) Sheridan GK and Murphy KJ. 2013. Neuron-glia crosstalk in health and disease: fractalkine and CX3CR1 take centre stage. Open Biol 3: 130181.
  6. (6) Prockop DJ and Oh JY. 2011. Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells (MSCs): Role as Guardians of Inflammation. Molecular Therapy. Vol. 20 No. 1, 14-20.
  7. (7) Giunti D, Parodi B, Usai C, et al. 2012. Mesenchymal Stem Cells shape microglia effector functions through the release of CX3CL1. Stem Cells. 30 (9) : 2044.
  8. (8) Saenger, A.K. and Christenson, R.H. 2010. Stroke Biomarkers: Progress and Challenges for Diagnosis, Prognosis, Differentiation, and Treatment. Clin Chem. 56:21-33.
  9. (9) Iadecola C and Anrather J, 2011. The Immunology of Stroke: from Mechanism to Translation. Nat Med. 17: 796-808.
  10. (10) Hu X, Li P, Guo Y, et al, 2012. Microglia/Macrophage Polarization Dynamics Reveal Novel Mechanism of Injury Expansion After Focal Cerebral Ischemia. Stroke. 43:3063-3070.
  11. (11) Hess DC and Hill WD. 2010. Cell therapy for ischaemic stroke. Cell Prolif. 44 (Suppl. 1): 1–8

How to Cite

Herminawati, L., Wijaya, A., Arief, M., & As’ad, S. (2016). Dynamics of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells, M1 Microglia/Macrophage, and Fractalkine in Ischemic Stroke Patients. Bali Medical Journal, 5(1), 56–58.




Search Panel