Does a higher degree of education affect the performance of healthcare leaders? A systematic review

Awal Prasetyo , Jethro Budiman, Muzakar Isa

Awal Prasetyo
Student of Master of Management, Faculty of Economic and Business, Muhammadiyah University of Surakarta, Indonesia ; Department of Anatomic Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Diponegoro University - dr. Kariadi Hospital, Semarang, Indonesia. Email:

Jethro Budiman
General Practitioner of Panti Wilasa Citarum Hospital, Semarang, Indonesia

Muzakar Isa
Faculty of Economic and Business, Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta, Indonesia
Online First: April 28, 2021 | Cite this Article
Prasetyo, A., Budiman, J., Isa, M. 2021. Does a higher degree of education affect the performance of healthcare leaders? A systematic review. Bali Medical Journal 10(1): 174-180. DOI:10.15562/bmj.v10i1.2014

Introduction: Healthcare leaders must have management skills, administrative competency, and leadership roles to fulfill the market demands, patient satisfaction, health policy, and complexity of the healthcare environment. Healthcare leader is expected to improve the competency through educational and professional program attainment to maximize measurable performance outcome for the hospital. The study aimed to systematically review the existing literature and carefully examine the findings to investigate the relationship between higher education and the performance of healthcare leaders.

Methods: Three independent reviewers conducted a literature search in electronic databases for publications that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Each of the included studies' risk of bias was independently evaluated by the lead author, who then discussed their findings with the other two authors to reach a consensus. Five papers out of 529 found by database searching met the requirements for this study.

Results: The Majority of the study designs were cross-sectional (4 of 5). Most of the studies discussed the outcome of the higher degree of education in healthcare leaders.

Conclusion: Higher and advanced degrees of education affect the better leadership role, administrative competence, and patient experience. Top healthcare leaders mostly have higher degrees of education focused on healthcare.


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