ORIGINAL ARTICLE

The relationship between the brain gym and the changes in interleukin 6 levels and the cognitive function in the elderly

Gerard Juswanto , Dani Rahmawati, Amin Husni, Widiastuti Widiastuti, Endang Kustiowati, Herlina Suryawati, Dwi Pudjanarko

Gerard Juswanto
Neurology Resident, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Diponegoro-Dr. Kariadi General Hospital, Semarang, Indonesia. Email: gerardjuswanto@gmail.com

Dani Rahmawati
Neurology Departement, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Diponegoro-Dr. Kariadi General Hospital, Semarang, Indonesia

Amin Husni
Neurology Departement, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Diponegoro-Dr. Kariadi General Hospital, Semarang, Indonesia

Widiastuti Widiastuti
Neurology Departement, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Diponegoro-Dr. Kariadi General Hospital, Semarang, Indonesia

Endang Kustiowati
Neurology Departement, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Diponegoro-Dr. Kariadi General Hospital, Semarang, Indonesia

Herlina Suryawati
Neurology Departement, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Diponegoro-Dr. Kariadi General Hospital, Semarang, Indonesia

Dwi Pudjanarko
Neurology Departement, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Diponegoro-Dr. Kariadi General Hospital, Semarang, Indonesia
Online First: April 30, 2021 | Cite this Article
Juswanto, G., Rahmawati, D., Husni, A., Widiastuti, W., Kustiowati, E., Suryawati, H., Pudjanarko, D. 2021. The relationship between the brain gym and the changes in interleukin 6 levels and the cognitive function in the elderly. Bali Medical Journal 10(1): 356-360. DOI:10.15562/bmj.v10i1.2189


Background: The prevalence of cognitive impairment increased by 10% that is doubling every 20 years. Brain gym is one of the non-pharmacological cognitive stimulation therapies that effectively increases brain neuroplasticity and is easy to do. The interleukin 6 biomarker is a pro-inflammatory blood marker that is sensitive to cognitive impairment. This research aims to analyze the relationship between the brain gym and the changes in interleukin 6 levels and the cognitive function in the elderly.

Methods: This research is a quasi-experimental observational study with a pretest and post-test approach without controls. The subjects are the elderly from the Tresna Werdha Social Home, Semarang. For comparative hypothesis test between categorical and numerical scale variables, normal data distribution was conducted by Independent T-test.

Results: In this research, 33 subjects had the average age of 70.06 ± 6.43 years and the dominant sex was male. There was a significant difference between interleukin 6 levels in pre and post brain gym (p<0.001). There was also a significant difference between the MoCA-Ina values in pre and post brain gym (p<0.001).

Conclusion: Interleukin 6 levels decreased after doing brain gym compared to before while the MoCA-Ina value increased after doing brain gym compared to before. Brain gym is safe, easy to do, and effective as a non-pharmacological therapy of neuroplasticity in cognitive impairment.

References

Ong PA, et al. Diagnosis and therapy guide for dementia. Jakarta: PERDOSSI; 2015. p. 122.

Peterson RC, et al. Practice guideline update summary: Mild cognitive impairment. American Academy of Neurology. 2018;90(3):126-135.

Jack CR Jr, Bennett DA, Blennow K, Carrillo MC, Feldman HH, Frisoni GB, Hampel H, Jagust WJ, Johnson KA, Knopman DS, Petersen RC, Scheltens P, Sperling RA, Dubois B. A/T/N: An unbiased descriptive classification scheme for Alzheimer disease biomarkers. Neurology. 2016;87(5):539-47. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000002923.

Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. Gambaran Kesehatan Lanjut Usia. [Internet] 2013; Alvaible from: http://www.kemkes.go.id

Indonesian Ministry of Health. Basic Health Research 2013. Information Database in Ministry of Health; 2013.

Hugo J, Ganguli M. Dementia and cognitive impairment: epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment. Clin Geriatr Med. 2014;30(3):421-42. doi: 10.1016/j.cger.2014.04.001.

Ritchie K, Artero S, Touchon J. Classification criteria for mild cognitive impairment: a population-based validation study. Neurology. 2001;56(1):37-42. doi: 10.1212/wnl.56.1.37.

Lau F, Brodney M. Alzheimer’s Disease. New York: Springer Verlag Berlin Heidelberg; 2008. p. 136

Gogia P, Rastogi N. Clinical Alzheimer Rehabilitation. New York: Springer Publishing Company; 2009. p. 360.

Chapman SB, et al. Neural Mechanisms Of Brain Plasticity With Complex Cognitive Training In Healthy Seniors, Cerebral Cortex Advance Access, USA 2015;25(2):396-405.

Sharma N, Singh AN. Exploring Biomarkers for Alzheimer's Disease. J Clin Diagn Res. 2016 Jul;10(7):KE01-6. doi: 10.7860/JCDR/2016/18828.8166. Epub 2016 Jul 1. PMID: 27630867; PMCID: PMC5020308.

Dennison PE, Dennison GE. Personalized Whole Brain Integration Edu Kinesthetics. Brain Gym Teacher’s Edition Revised. Gramedia Jakarta; 2009.

Cancela JM, Vila Suárez MH, Vasconcelos J, Lima A, Ayán C. Efficacy of Brain Gym Training on the Cognitive Performance and Fitness Level of Active Older Adults: A Preliminary Study. J Aging Phys Act. 2015;23(4):653-8. doi: 10.1123/japa.2014-0044.

Green ML. Graduate medical education training in clinical epidemiology, critical appraisal, and evidence-based medicine: a critical review of curricula. Acad Med. 1999;74(6):686-94. doi: 10.1097/00001888-199906000-00017.

Sastroasmoro S, Ismail S. Basic for Clinical Research 5th edition. Jakarta: Sagung Seto; 2014.

Fraga VG, Guimarães HC, Teixeira AL, Barbosa MT, Mateo EC, Carvalho MG, Caramelli P, Gomes KB. Genetic predisposition to higher production of interleukin-6 through -174 G > C polymorphism predicts global cognitive decline in oldest-old with cognitive impairment no dementia. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2015;73(11):899-902.

Gómez-Rubio P, Trapero I. The Effects of Exercise on IL-6 Levels and Cognitive Performance in Patients with Schizophrenia. Diseases. 2019;7(1):11. doi: 10.3390/diseases7010011.

Lee HY, Stieger M, Yawalkar N, Kakeda M. Cytokines and chemokines in irritant contact dermatitis. Mediators Inflamm. 2013;2013:916497. doi: 10.1155/2013/916497.

Yaguez L, Shaw KN, Morris R, Matthews D. The effects on cognitive functions of a movement-based intervention in patients with Alzheimer's type dementia: a pilot study. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2011;26(2):173-81.

Bradburn S, Sarginson J, Murgatroyd CA. Association of Peripheral Interleukin-6 with Global Cognitive Decline in Non-demented Adults: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies. Front Aging Neurosci. 2018;9:438. doi: 10.3389/fnagi.2017.00438.

Rahmawati D, Juswanto G. The types of cognitive impairment in urban populations Semarang Indonesia. 16’th Asian Oceanian Congress of Neurology. Seoul, Korea. 2018.


No Supplementary Material available for this article.
Article Views      : 0
PDF Downloads : 0