Backgrounds: Acne vulgaris is a chronic sebaceous gland inflammatory disorder that predominantly affects adolescents and young adults. Increased sebum, alterations in follicular keratinization, Cutibacterium acnes colonization, and inflammation are the critical pathways in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. Facial skin hydration can affect the primary pathogenesis mechanism of acne vulgaris. This study aimed to examine the correlation between the level of facial skin hydration and the severity of acne vulgaris.
Methods: This study was an observational analytical study of 40 subjects with acne vulgaris and 40 subjects without acne vulgaris, using a cross-sectional design. The subjects' facial skin hydration was analyzed using a CM 825 corneometer, and the severity of acne vulgaris was assessed based on Lehmann's criteria. Data were analyzed using the Spearman correlation test. Health Research Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Medicine at the University of North Sumatra has approved this study.
Results: Of the 40 subjects with acne vulgaris, women dominated (65 %) with a mean age of 19.6 ± 1.86 years old. Most subjects had moderate (50 %) degrees of acne vulgaris, followed by mild (42.5 %) and severe (7.5 %) degrees. In acne vulgaris subjects, the considered normal level of facial skin hydration was 92.5 %. The facial skin hydration found in acne vulgaris subjects was lower than non-acne vulgaris subjects with a p-value of 0.002. The degree of facial skin hydration is associated with the severity of acne vulgaris with moderate strength correlation values (p=<0.001, r= -0.453).
Conclusions: A significant correlation exists between the level of hydration of the facial skin and the severity of acne vulgaris. The lower facial skin hydration level could promote the more severe form of acne vulgaris.