REVIEW

Assessment and Detection of male Reproductive Outcome (ANDRO) model as a concept for improving the contribution of general practitioners in Indonesia for male infertility management

Dicky Moch Rizal

Dicky Moch Rizal
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Email: drdickyandrologi@ugm.ac.id
Online First: November 04, 2021 | Cite this Article
Rizal, D. 2021. Assessment and Detection of male Reproductive Outcome (ANDRO) model as a concept for improving the contribution of general practitioners in Indonesia for male infertility management. Bali Medical Journal 10(3): 912-917. DOI:10.15562/bmj.v10i3.2670


Specialist distribution in Indonesia was not equally between urban and rural areas. In this condition, the role of general practitioners is critical as a front guard for handling patients with infertility problems, especially male infertility, before making a referral to an andrologist. There has been no guidance for general practitioners in Indonesia to contribute to managing male infertility until now. We identify male infertility problems and the level of competence of general practitioners in providing interventions based on “Standar Kompetensi Dokter Indonesia (SKDI)” or Standard of Competencies Indonesian Doctors. Furthermore, a guideline, namely the Assessment and Detection of male Reproductive Outcome (ANDRO) model, is made by conducting a literature review based on male infertility problems and the level of competency that have been identified before. ANDRO model is consists of major and minor aspects of male infertility make a star form. The significant elements including the risk of a reproductive problem, sexual dysfunction, abnormal sperm, presence of testicular mass, and small testicular volume. While the minor aspects including physical activity, body mass index management, metabolic problem management, lifestyle modification, and stress management. ANDRO model offers the opportunity for general practitioners to contribute to a couple who wants to have a baby by treating or improving factors related to male infertility.

References

Mascarenhas MN, Flaxman SR, Boerma T, Vanderpoel S, Stevens GA. National, regional, and global trends in infertility prevalence since 1990: a systematic analysis of 277 health surveys. PLoS medicine. 2012;9(12):e1001356.

Agarwal A, Hamada A, Esteves SC. Engaging practicing gynecologists in the management of infertile men. Journal of obstetrics and gynaecology of India. 2015;65(2):75-87.

Meliala A, Hort K, Trisnantoro L. Addressing the unequal geographic distribution of specialist doctors in indonesia: the role of the private sector and effectiveness of current regulations. Soc Sci Med. 2013;82:30-34.

Indonesian Medical Council. Perkonsil Number 11 of 2012: Standard of Competencies Indonesian Doctors 2012. Jakarta: Indonesian Medical Council. 2012. [Available at:http://www.kki.go.id/assets/data/arsip/SKDI_Perkonsil,_11_maret_13.pdf]

Lindsay TJ, Vitrikas KR. Evaluation and treatment of infertility. American family physician. 2015;91(5):308-314.

Practice Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Diagnostic evaluation of the infertile male: a committee opinion. Fertil Steril. 2015;103(3):e18-e25.

Tritschler S, Roosen A, Füllhase C, Stief CG, Rübben H. Urethral stricture: etiology, investigation and treatments. Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2013;110(13):220-226.

Agarwal A, Baskaran S, Parekh N, Cho CL, Henkel R, Vij S, et al. Male infertility. Lancet. 2021;397(10271):319-333.

Schulster ML, Liang SE, Najari BB. Metabolic syndrome and sexual dysfunction. Curr Opin Urol. 2017;27(5):435-440.

Stojanov M, Baud D, Greub G, Vulliemoz N. Male infertility: the intracellular bacterial hypothesis. New Microbes New Infect. 2018;26:37-41.

Brookings C, Goldmeier D, Sadeghi-Nejad H. Sexually transmitted infections and sexual function in relation to male fertility. Korean J Urol. 2013;54(3):149-156.

Dabbous Z, Atkin SL. Hyperprolactinaemia in male infertility: Clinical Case Scenarios. Arab J Urol. 2017;16(1):44-52.

Bieniek JM, Juvet T, Margolis M, Grober ED, Lo KC, Jarvi KA. Prevalence and Management of Incidental Small Testicular Masses Discovered on Ultrasonographic Evaluation of Male Infertility. J Urol. 2018;199(2):481-486.

Condorelli R, Calogero AE, La Vignera S. Relationship between Testicular Volume and Conventional or Nonconventional Sperm Parameters. Int J Endocrinol. 2013;2013:145792.

Schlaff W, Wierman M. Endocrinology of male fertility and infertility. Curr Opin Obstet. 1990;2(3):412-417.

Mirochnik B, Bhargava P, Dighe MK, Kanth N. Ultrasound evaluation of scrotal pathology. Radiol Clin North Am. 2012;50(2):317-332.

Zhang F, Li L, Wang L, Yang L, Liang Z, Li J, et al. Clinical characteristics and treatment of azoospermia and severe oligospermia patients with Y-chromosome microdeletions. Mol Reprod Dev. 2013;80(11):908-915.

Choi HI, Yang DM, Kim HC, Kim SW, Jeong HS, Moon SK, et al. Testicular atrophy after mumps orchitis: ultrasonographic findings. Ultrasonography. 2020;39(3):266-271.

Savill B, Murray A, Weiler R. Is general practice engaged with physical activity promotion? Br J Gen Pract. 2015;65(638):484-485.

Pärn T, Grau Ruiz R, Kunovac Kallak T, Ruiz JR, Davey E, Hreinsson J, et al. Physical activity, fatness, educational level and snuff consumption as determinants of semen quality: findings of the ActiART study. Reprod Biomed Online. 2015;31(1):108-119.

Ibañez-Perez J, Santos-Zorrozua B, Lopez-Lopez E, Matorras R, Garcia-Orad A. An update on the implication of physical activity on semen quality: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2019;299(4):901-921.

El Salam MAA. Obesity, An Enemy of Male Fertility: A Mini Review. Oman Med J. 2018;33(1):3-6.

Corona G, Bianchini S, Sforza A, Vignozzi L, Maggi M. Hypogonadism as a possible link between metabolic diseases and erectile dysfunction in aging men. Hormones (Athens). 2015;14(4):569-578.

Pivonello R, Menafra D, Riccio E, Garifalos F, Mazzella M, de Angelis C, et al. Metabolic Disorders and Male Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2019;10:345.

Guo D, Xu M, Zhou Q, Wu C, Ju R, Dai J. Is low body mass index a risk factor for semen quality? A PRISMA-compliant meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore). 2019;98(32):e16677.

Martins A, Majzoub A, Agawal A. Metabolic Syndrome and Male Fertility. World J Mens Health. 2019;37(2):113-127.

Durairajanayagam D. Lifestyle causes of male infertility. Arab J Urol. 2018;16(1):10-20.

Hajizadeh Maleki B, Tartibian B. Resistance exercise modulates male factor infertility through anti-inflammatory and antioxidative mechanisms in infertile men: A RCT. Life sciences. 2018;203:150-60.

Farhud DD. Impact of Lifestyle on Health. Iran J Public Health. 2015;44(11):1442-1444.

Wang JY, Chen JD, Huang CC, Liu CS, Chung TF, Hsieh MH, et al. Investigation of time-dependent risk of mental disorders after infertility diagnosis, through survival analysis and data mining: a nationwide cohort study. Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care. 2018;23(3):218-226.

Yang B, Zhang J, Qi Y, Wang P, Jiang R, Li H. Assessment on Occurrences of Depression and Anxiety and Associated Risk Factors in the Infertile Chinese Men. Am J Mens Health. 2017;11(3):767-774.

Nargund VH. Effects of psychological stress on male fertility. Nat Rev Urol. 2015;12(7):373-382.

Öztekin Ü, Hacimusalar Y, Gürel A, Karaaslan O. The Relationship of Male Infertility with Somatosensory Amplification, Health Anxiety and Depression Levels. Psychiatry Investig. 2020;17(4):350-355.

Kandola A, Stubbs B. Exercise and Anxiety. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2020;1228:345-352.

Han KS, Kim L, Shim I. Stress and sleep disorder. Exp Neurobiol. 2012;21(4):141-150.

Basta M, Chrousos GP, Vela-Bueno A, Vgontzas AN. Chronic Insomnia and Stress System. Sleep Med Clin. 2007;2(2):279-291.

Liu MM, Liu L, Chen L, Yin XJ, Liu H, Zhang YH, et al. Sleep Deprivation and Late Bedtime Impair Sperm Health Through Increasing Antisperm Antibody Production: A Prospective Study of 981 Healthy Men. Med Sci Monit. 2017;23:1842-1848.


No Supplementary Material available for this article.
Article Views      : 0
PDF Downloads : 0

Related Articles

Search Authors in












  • Dicky Moch Rizal

  • Dicky Moch Rizal

  • Dicky Moch Rizal