Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer

Relationship between plasma atherogenic index and xanthelasma palpebrarum

  • Sri Karunia Setio Wati ,
  • Imam Budi Putra ,
  • Nelva Karmila Jusuf ,


Introduction: Xanthelasma is a common form of skin xanthoma. It is due to abnormal lipid deposition in the eyelid skin. Xanthelasma is thought to be a sign of dyslipidemia, one of the important risk factors in atherosclerosis. The risk of atherosclerotic disease can be determined using the atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) parameters. AIP is a mathematical relationship between TG and HDL in logs (TG/HDL). Thus, this study aimed to determine the relationship between the atherogenic index of plasma and xanthelasma palpebrarum at the Polyclinic of the Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Universitas Sumatera Utara Hospital.

Methods: This study was an observational analytic study with a cross-sectional approach involving 50 patients with xanthelasma palpebral and 50 controls based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Gender, age, lipid profile values (cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and triglycerides), and Atherogenic Index of Plasma (AIP) values were recorded. Laboratory tests measured assessment atherogenic index of plasma to determine triglyceride (TG) and high-density lipid (HDL) levels using the Cobas 6000 C501 device.  An independent t-test was conducted to assess the relationship between research variables, and it was declared significant with p < 0.001.

Results: The majority of xanthelasma palpebrarum occurred in women (94%), and the mean value of the subjects of this disease was higher in the 50-59 year age group (42%). The mean value of lipid profile (total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and triglycerides) in xanthelasma palpebrarum subjects tends to increase compared to subjects without xanthelasma palpebrarum. The results obtained using the logistic regression test showed that there was a significant relationship between plasma atherogenic index (AIP) values and xanthelasma palpebrarum (p < 0.001). In the group with xanthelasma palpebrarum, the highest proportion were subjects with an IAP value > 0.21 (high risk), and the risk of experiencing xanthelasma palpebrarum was 7.714 times greater than subjects with an AIP < 0.11 (low risk).

Conclusion: There is a relationship between plasma atherogenic index and xanthelasma palpebrarum.


  1. Schaefer E, Santos R. Xanthomatoses and lipoprotein disorders. 8th ed. Fitzpatrick's dermatology in general medicine, editor. Fitzpatrick's dermatology in general medicine. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2012. 1600–1612 p.
  2. Wulandari N, Nilasari H, Cipto H. Xanthelasma, clinical features and management. Indones Derm Venereol Media. 2013;40(1):46–55.
  3. Rubinstein T, Mehta M, Schoenfiel L, Perry J. Orbital xanthogranuloma in an adult patient with xanthelasma palpebrarum and hypercholesterolemia. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 2014;30:2013–5.
  4. Nair P, Singhal R. Xanthelasma palpebrarum – A brief review. Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatology. 2018;11(1).
  5. Zagoto Y, Lestari S, Asri E. Profile of xanthelasma during January 2013- December 2017 in Dermato-Venereology outpatient clinic of Dr. M. Djamil Hospital Padang. Reg Conf Dermatology. 2018;
  6. Kavouss H, Ebrahimi A, Rezaei M, Ramezani M, Najafi B, Kavoussi R. Serum lipid profile and clinical characteristics of patients with xanthelasma palpebrarum. An Bras Dermatol. 2016;91:468–71.
  7. Pandhi D, Gupta P, Singal A, Tondo A, Sharma S, Madhu S. Xanthelasma palpebrarum: A marker of premature atherosclerosis (risk of atherosclerosis in xanthelasma). Postgr Med J. 2012;88:198–204.
  8. Lee H, Jin U, Minn K, Park Y. Outcomes of surgical management of xanthelasma palpebrarum. Arch Plast Surg. 2013;40(4):380–6.
  9. Dey A, Aggarwal R, Dwivedi S. Cardiovascular Profile of Xanthelasma Palpebrarum. Mocco J, editor. Biomed Res Int. 2013;2013:932863. Available from:
  10. Govorkova MS, Milman T, Ying G-S, Pan W, Silkiss RZ. Inflammatory Mediators in Xanthelasma Palpebrarum: Histopathologic and Immunohistochemical Study. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 2018;34(3):225–30. Available from:
  11. Niroumand S, Khajedalue M, Khadem-Rezaiyan, M Abrishami M, Juya M, Khodaee, G Dadgarmoghaddam M. Atherogenic Index of Plasma (AIP): A Marker of Cardiovascular Disease. Med J Islam Repub Iran. 2015;29–240.
  12. Shen S, Lu Y, Li F, Yang C, Feng Y, Li H, et al. Atherogenic index of plasma is an effective index for estimating abdominal obesity. Br Med J. 2018;17(1):4–9.
  13. Onat A, Can G, Kaya H, Hergenç G. Atherogenic index of plasma? log10 triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol predicts high blood pressure, diabetes, and vascular events. J Clin Lipidol. 2010;42:89–98.
  14. Karniawati M, Mulyani Y, Sumardi C. Comparison of plasma atherogenic index Log (TG/HDL) in obese and non-obese women. JIF Farmasyifa. 2020;3(1):35–43.
  15. Chang H, Sung C, Lin M. Serum lipids and risk of atherosclerosis in xanthelasma palpebrarum: A systematic review and meta-analysis. JAM Dermatol Acad. 2020;82(3):596–605.
  16. Christoffersen M, Frikke-Schmidt R, Schnohr P, Jensen G. Xanthelasmata, arcus corneae, and ischemic vascular disease and death in the general population: a prospective cohort study. Br Med J. 2011;343:731–5.
  17. Ozdol S, Sahin S, Tokgozoglu L. Xanthelasma palpebrarum and its relation to atherosclerotic risk factors and lipoprotein (a). Int Soc Dermatology Int J Dermatology. 2008;47:785–789.
  18. Suman AHMKI, Begum K, Rahman K, Talukder AM, Rahman SMM, Ali MA, et al. Association of Xanthelasma palpebrarum (XP) with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Asian J Med Biol Res. 2020;5(4):324–9. Available from:
  19. Gondane S, Ashok M, Rajkumar K. To Study the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Dyslipidemia in Patients of Xanthelasma Palpebrarum at a Tertiary Care Hospital. Indian J Clin Pract. 2020;31(4).
  20. Ghimire S, Kayastha. Biochemical Profile in Xanthelasma palpebrarum. Post-Graduate Med J NAMS. 2018;
  21. Chaudhary, Savita, Samreen H. Clinico-Metabolic profile of Xanthelasma palpebrum. IP Indian J Clin Exp Dermatology. 2018;4(1):22–5.
  22. Zak, Alex, Miroslav Z, Adolf S. Xanthomas: Clinical and pathophysiological relations. Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2014;158(2):181–8.
  23. Sankar, Sathya P, Christina S. A Biochemical Profile On Patients With Xanthelasma Palpebrarum: A Clinical Study. Natl J Med Res Yoga Sci. 2015;1(2):19–21.

How to Cite

Setio Wati, S. K., Putra, I. B., & Jusuf, N. K. (2021). Relationship between plasma atherogenic index and xanthelasma palpebrarum. Bali Medical Journal, 10(3), 1010–1014.




Search Panel

Sri Karunia Setio Wati
Google Scholar
BMJ Journal

Imam Budi Putra
Google Scholar
BMJ Journal

Nelva Karmila Jusuf
Google Scholar
BMJ Journal