Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer

The correlation between dysfunctional family process and self-neglect of street children at Special Region of Yogyakarta


Introduction: Street children still become a big concern in the world, and United Nations has concerns about a homeless child or live-in poverty. Dysfunction of the family process has the worst implication for the child as a vulnerable population. It does not only increase anxiety and depression but also leads to self-neglect especially among street children. The nurse especially the mental health nurse and community nurse needs to identify the risk factor of dysfunctional family process and self-neglect to make possible prevention and intervention for street children. This study aims to determine the correlation between the dysfunction of the family process and the self-neglect of street children in Yogyakarta.

Methods: The sample was 90 street children who are from the district in Yogyakarta. The sample was taken by accidental sampling technique, with the sampling criteria: 1) the street children who live in Yogyakarta, 2) willing to fill inform consent, 3) both boys or girls, 4) age 10-21 years old, 5) not marriage yet. The instrument was using a dysfunction of family process questionnaire and self-neglect questionnaire which are both are developed from NANDA-I Nursing Diagnoses. The data analysis was used Pearson Correlation Test.

Results: The mean score of dysfunctions of the family process is 109 and self-neglect has a mean score of 28.33. There was a significant relationship between dysfunction of family process and self-neglect among street children in Yogyakarta (p= 0.000) with a correlation coefficient were 0.659.

Conclusions: There was a significant relationship between dysfunction of family process and self-neglect among street children in Yogyakarta


  1. Friedman MM. Family Nursing: Theory and Practice. California: Appleton & Lange; 2016.
  2. Herderman K. NANDA-I Diagnosis Keperawatan Definisi dan Klasifikasi 2018-2020. 11, editor: EGC; 2018.
  3. Lauder W, Roxburgh M, Harris J, Law J. Developing self-neglect theory: analysis of related and atypical cases of people identified as self-neglecting. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing. 2009;16(5):447-54.
  4. United Nations. Report of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights on the protection and promotion of the rights of children working and/or living on the street. 2012.
  5. Karabanow J, Kidd S. Being Young and Homeless: Addressing Youth Homelessness from Drop-in to Drafting Policy. In: Guirguis-Younger M, McNeil R, Hwang SW, editors. Homelessness & Health in Canada. Ottawa Canada: University of Ottawa Press; 2014. p. 13-34.
  6. KEMENKUMHAM. Undang-undang Republik Indonesia nomor 35 tahun 2014 tentang perubahan atas undang-undang nomor 23 tahun 2002 tentang perlindungan anak; 2014.
  7. United Nations. General comment no 21 (2017) on children in street situations; 2017.
  8. Darragh L. Street children: everything about this global humanitarian crisis. 2019.
  9. Gao Y, Atkinson-Sheppard S, Yu Y, Xiong G. A review of the national policies on street children in China. Children and Youth Services Review. 2018;93:79-87.
  10. Bappeda J. Penyandang masalah kesejahteraan sosia dan sarana kesejahteraan sosial. Bappeda Jogja; 2021.
  11. Derivois D, Cénat JM, Joseph NE, Karray A, Chahraoui K. Prevalence and determinants of post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, and depression symptoms in street children survivors of the 2010 earthquake in Haiti, four years after. Child Abuse Negl. 2017;67:174-81.
  12. Reza MH. Poverty, violence, and family disorganization: Three “Hydras” and their role in children's street movement in Bangladesh. Child Abuse & Neglect. 2016;55:62-72.
  13. Beazley H. 'Vagrants wearing make-up': negotiating spaces on the streets of Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Urban Studies. 2002;39(9):1665-83.
  14. Benitez STD. State of the Worlds Street Children: Research; 2011.
  15. Tyler KA, Schmitz RM. Child abuse, mental health and sleeping arrangements among homeless youth: Links to physical and sexual street victimization. Children and Youth Services Review. 2018;95:327-33.
  16. Ayaya S, DeLong A, Embleton L, Ayuku D, Sang E, Hogan J, et al. Prevalence, incidence and chronicity of child abuse among orphaned, separated, and street-connected children and adolescents in western Kenya: What is the impact of care environment? Child Abuse & Neglect. 2021:104920.
  17. Ongowo EO, Ngetich K, Murenga H. A false start: children of the street's journey into the charitable children institutions and its policy implications. Social Sciences & Humanities Open. 2021;4(1):100166.
  18. Wang Y, Tian L, Guo L, Huebner ES. Family dysfunction and adolescents' anxiety and depression: a multiple mediation model. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology. 2020;66:101090.
  19. McAlpine K, Henley R, Mueller M, Vetter S. A survey of street children in northern tanzania: how abuse or support factors may influence migration to the street. Community Mental Health Journal. 2010;46(1):26-32.
  20. Chang L-Y, Wu C-C, Yen L-L, Chang H-Y. The effects of family dysfunction trajectories during childhood and early adolescence on sleep quality during late adolescence: Resilience as a mediator. Social Science & Medicine. 2019;222:162-70.
  21. Bazubagira AK, Umumararungu CK. Self-reliance: A response to early childhood trauma among street children. International Journal of Research in Business and Social Science. 2020;9(6):183-90.
  22. Guo L, Tian L, Scott Huebner E. Family dysfunction and anxiety in adolescents: A moderated mediation model of self-esteem and perceived school stress. Journal of School Psychology. 2018;69:16-27.
  23. Sinaga. Potret kehidupan anak jalanan di Bandar Lampung [Skripsi]. Lampung: Universitas Lampung; 2017.
  24. Lauder W, Anderson I, Barclay A. Housing and self-neglect: The responses of health, social care, and environmental health agencies. Journal of Interprofessional Care. 2005;19(4):317-25.
  25. Yu M, Gu L, Jiao W, Xia H, Wang W. Predictors of self-neglect among community-dwelling older adults living alone in China. Geriatric Nursing. 2019;40(5):457-62.

How to Cite

Irawati, K., Ningrat, F. N., & Dewi, E. U. (2021). The correlation between dysfunctional family process and self-neglect of street children at Special Region of Yogyakarta. Bali Medical Journal, 10(3), 1127–1131.




Search Panel

Kellyana Irawati
Google Scholar
BMJ Journal

Fadjri Nuryusofa Ningrat
Google Scholar
BMJ Journal

Eltanina Ulfameytalia Dewi
Google Scholar
BMJ Journal