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Online continuing professional development (CPD) for clinical nurse in the developing countries: a literature review

  • Novita Kurnia Sari ,
  • Titi Savitri Prihatiningsih ,
  • Lely Lusmilasari ,
  • Andreasta Meliala ,


Continuing education for nurses in the clinical setting is pivotal for their professionalism as well as the improvement of care delivery to the patient. While the traditional face-to-face method takes so many resources, online provision exists to bridge the gap. Therefore, this study aims to review the implementation of online CPD in developing countries where the characteristics of Indonesia are almost similar to these countries. Relevant publications were identified from Cochrane Trial, EBSCOhost, ProQuest, PubMed, ScienceDirect, and online manual resources from a search engine. Inclusion criteria included studies done in the low- and middle-income countries, full text, in English, peer-reviewed, and published in 2016-2020. A total of 17 articles were reviewed in this study resulting in several major themes including 1) barriers and facilitators of online CPD; 2) perception and expectation of nurses about online CPD; 3) model and development for online CPD. Study of needs and Indonesian nurse expectation and preparedness, a suitable framework to develop a more targeted and usable online CPD development plan in Indonesia can be done using pilot projects and other methods.


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How to Cite

Sari, N. K., Prihatiningsih, T. S., Lusmilasari, L., & Meliala, A. (2021). Online continuing professional development (CPD) for clinical nurse in the developing countries: a literature review. Bali Medical Journal, 10(3), 1088–1097.




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Novita Kurnia Sari
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Titi Savitri Prihatiningsih
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Lely Lusmilasari
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Andreasta Meliala
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