Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer

Caring behavior: a qualitative exploration of nurses' perception in a caring patient with acute myocardial infarction


Introduction: Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) and the care environment affect the patient's physical, psychological, and social condition. Caring applications in the nursing process can increase positive change and build trust and satisfaction in patients and families. This study aims to get an overview of the application of caring in AMI patients in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) from perceptive nurses.

Methods: The descriptive qualitative design was selected to obtain in-depth information with face-to-face interviews with twelve nurses. Participatory involvement in the research was selected using purposive. Data analysis is manually done with Collaizi's Content Analysis. Triangulation, member checking, and peer debriefing have increased data crawling. Before and during the data retrieval process, the ethics of the researchers are applied

Results: Data analysis produces three themes that can answer research objectives. The themes formed can describe the caring behavior of nurses in critical units caring for AMI patients.

Conclusion: Nurse care is an interpersonal process with professional knowledge and skills that can result in protection, emotional support, and fulfillment of the bio-psycho-social needs of patients. This study's perception and application of nursing care for AMI patients are with the spirit of caring and implementing instrumental caring. Unfortunately, there are still obstacles in applying nurse care to AMI patients.


  1. Andersson EK, Borglin G, Willman A. The experience of younger adults following myocardial infarction. Qual Health Res. 2013;23(6):762–72.
  2. Wingham J, Dalal HM, Sweeney KG, Evans PH. Listening to patients: Choice in cardiac rehabilitation. Eur J Cardiovasc Nurs. 2006;5(4):289–94.
  3. Taylor EJ, Gober-Park C, Schoonover-Shoffner K, Mamier I, Somaiya CK, Bahjri K. Nurse opinions about initiating spiritual conversation and prayer in patient care. J Adv Nurs. 2018;74(10):2381–92.
  4. Meriläinen M, Kyngäs H, Ala-Kokko T. 24-Hour intensive care: An observational study of an environment and events. Intensive Crit Care Nurs. 2010;26(5):246–53.
  5. Hofhuis JGM, Spronk PE, van Stel HF, Schrijvers AJP, Rommes JH, Bakker J. Experiences of critically ill patients in the ICU. Intensive Crit Care Nurs. 2008;24(5):300–13.
  6. Geense WW, Van Den Boogaard M, Peters MAA, Simons KS, Ewalds E, Vermeulen H, et al. Physical, Mental, and Cognitive Health Status of ICU Survivors before ICU Admission: A Cohort Study. Crit Care Med. 2020;1271–9.
  7. Kang J, Yun S, Cho YS, Jeong YJ. Post-intensive care unit depression among critical care survivors: A nationwide population-based study. Japan J Nurs Sci. 2020;17(2):1–11.
  8. Drahošová L, Jarošová D. Concept caring in nursing. Cent Eur J Nurs Midwifery. 2016;7(2):453–60.
  9. Kuntarti, Rustina Y, Umar J, Irawati D. Concept analysis of caring personality for nursing: A review. Pertanika J Soc Sci Humanit. 2020;28(4):2485–504.
  10. Thomas D, Newcomb P, Fusco P. Perception of Caring Among Patients and Nurses. J Patient Exp. 2019;6(3):194–200.
  11. O’Connell E, Landers M. The importance of critical care nurses’ caring behaviours as perceived by nurses and relatives. Intensive Crit Care Nurs. 2008;24(6):349–58.
  12. Nascimento KC do, Erdmann AL. Understanding the dimensions of intensive care: transpersonal caring and complexity theories. Rev Lat Am Enfermagem. 2009;17(2):215–21.
  13. Roland G. The Meaning of Caring From Nurses Working at an Intensive Coronary Care Unit in Mauritius. Int J Sci Res Publ. 2014;4(8):192–7.
  14. Azizi-Fini I, Mousavi M-S, Mazroui-Sabdani A, Adib-Hajbaghery M. Correlation Between Nurses’ Caring Behaviors and Patients’ Satisfaction. Nurs Midwifery Stud. 2012;1(1):36–40.
  15. Pryzby BJ. Effects of nurse caring behaviours on family stress responses in critical care. Intensive Crit Care Nurs. 2005;21(1):16–23.
  16. Dinç L, Gastmans C. Trust in nurse-patient relationships: A literature review. Nurs Ethics. 2013;20(5):501–16.
  17. Milligan F, Almomani E. Death anxiety and compassion fatigue in critical care nurses. Br J Nurs. 2020;29(15):874–9.
  18. Praveena KR, Sasikumar S. Application of Colaizzi’s Method of Data Analysis in Phenomenological Research. Med Leg Updat. 2021;21(2):914–8.
  19. Schell CO, Gerdin Wärnberg M, Hvarfner A, Höög A, Baker U, Castegren M, et al. The global need for essential emergency and critical care. Crit Care. 2018;22(1):1–5.
  20. Pesaro AEP, Katz M, Katz JN, Barbas CSV, Makdisse MR, Correa AG, et al. Mechanical ventilation and clinical outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction: A retrospective observational study. PLoS One. 2016;11(3):1–11.
  21. Ouyang L, Yu M, Zhu Y, Gong J. Respiratory supports of COVID-19 patients in intensive care unit: A systematic review. Heliyon. 2021;7(4).
  22. Bradley P, Falk-Rafael A. Instrumental care and human-centered caring: Rhetoric and lived reality. Adv Nurs Sci. 2011;34(4):297–314.
  23. Romero-Martín M, Gómez-Salgado J, Robles-Romero JM, Jiménez-Picón N, Gómez-Urquiza JL, Ponce-Blandón JA. Systematic review of the nature of nursing care described by using the Caring Behaviours Inventory. J Clin Nurs. 2019;28(21–22):3734–46.
  24. Mako T, Svanäng P, Bjerså K. Patients’ perceptions of the meaning of good care in surgical care: A grounded theory study. BMC Nurs. 2016;15(1):1–9.
  25. Houghton C, Murphy K, Brooker D, Casey D. Healthcare staffs’ experiences and perceptions of caring for people with dementia in the acute setting: Qualitative evidence synthesis. Int J Nurs Stud. 2016;61:104–16.
  26. Erkus G, Dinc L. Turkish nurses’ perceptions of professional values. J Prof Nurs. 2018;34(3):226–32.
  27. Slettmyr A, Schandl A, Arman M. The ambiguity of altruism in nursing: A qualitative study. Nurs Ethics. 2019;26(2):368–77.
  28. Timmins F, King C, de Vries JMA, Johnson M, Cullen JG, Haigh C. Altruism, honesty and religiosity in nursing students. Vol. 27, Journal of Clinical Nursing. 2018. 3687–3698 p.
  29. Holopainen G, Nyström L, Kasén A. The caring encounter in nursing. Nurs Ethics. 2019;26(1):7–16.
  30. Edvardsson D, Watt E, Pearce F. Patient experiences of caring and person-centredness are associated with perceived nursing care quality. J Adv Nurs. 2017;73(1):217–27.
  31. Moons P, Luyckx K, Dezutter J, Kovacs AH, Thomet C, Budts W, et al. Religion and spirituality as predictors of patient-reported outcomes in adults with congenital heart disease around the globe. Int J Cardiol. 2019;274:93–9.
  32. Palmer Kelly E, Hyer M, Payne N, Pawlik TM. Does spiritual and religious orientation impact the clinical practice of healthcare providers? J Interprof Care. 2020;34(4):520–7.
  33. Niu Y, Mcsherry W, Partridge M. The Perceptions of Spirituality and Spiritual Care Among People From Chinese Backgrounds Living in England: A Grounded Theory Method. J Transcult Nurs. 2021;32(4):350–9.
  34. Fawares F, Ibdah R, Ammar K, Alkhoulli L, Khader H, Muhareb H, et al. Spiritual Beliefs of Jordanian Adult Patients Receiving Palliative Care. J Relig Health. 2021;60(4):2849–61.
  35. Fernández Trinidad M, González Pascual JL, Rodríguez García M. Perception of caring among nursing students: Results from a cross-sectional survey. Nurse Educ Today. 2019;83(June).
  36. Whiteside D. Perioperative Nurse Leaders and Professionalism. AORN J. 2016;104(2):133–44.
  37. Lorenz EC, Egginton JS, Stegall MD, Cheville AL, Heilman RL, Nair SS, et al. Patient experience after kidney transplant: a conceptual framework of treatment burden. J Patient-Reported Outcomes. 2019;3(1).
  38. Moran KK. Perspectives on the child care search process in low-income, urban neighbourhoods in the United States. Early Child Dev Care. 2021;191(5):655–69.

How to Cite

Kristinawati, B., Nurachmah, E., & Yulia, Y. (2021). Caring behavior: a qualitative exploration of nurses’ perception in a caring patient with acute myocardial infarction. Bali Medical Journal, 10(3), 1244–1248.




Search Panel