Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer

The prevalence and characteristics of perineal rupture during vaginal delivery at Sanglah General Hospital and Regional Hospitals in Bali from January 2018 until December 2019 period

Abstract

Background: One of the causes contributing to the high maternal mortality rate in Indonesia is postpartum hemorrhage, which can be the consequence of perineal rupture. Perineal rupture can happen spontaneously in normal vaginal delivery or worsen after episiotomy, induction of labor, vacuum and forceps delivery. This study aims to know the prevalence and characteristics of perineal rupture so that it can be used as data to make policy guidelines for preventing and reducing the incidence of perineal rupture.

Methods: This is a retrospective descriptive study analyzing secondary data collected from Sanglah General Hospital and nine other Regional Hospitals from January 2018 until December 2019. The data analysis technique used is a univariable analysis by calculating the frequency distribution and proportion to determine the prevalence and characteristics of the research subjects. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20 for Windows.

Results: There are 8,178 cases of vaginal delivery, 6,191 cases (75.70%) with perineal rupture and 1,987 cases (24.30%) without perineal rupture. Perineal rupture is most often found in women < 20 years old (82.66%), primigravida (81.76%), preterm gestational age (78.23%), the baby with birth weight > 4,000 grams (94.26%), underweight mother (87.50%), and women with assisted delivery by vacuum or forceps (100.00%). 

Conclusion: The Prevalence of perineal rupture in this study is 75.70%, with the most characteristics being women < 20 years old, primigravida, preterm gestational age, macrosomia baby, normal IMT, assisted vaginal delivery.

References

  1. Dresang LT, Yonke N. Management of Spontaneous Vaginal Delivery. Am Fam Physician. 2015;92(3):202-208.
  2. Al-Ghamdi T, Al-Thaydi AH, Chamsi AT, Mardawi EA. Incidence and Risk Factors for Development of Third- and Fourth-Degree Perineal Tears: A Four-Year Experience in a Single Saudi Center. J Women's Health Care. 2018;7(2):423.
  3. Birri J, Kreft M, Zimmermann R, Kimmich N. Association of Birth Trauma with the Implementation of Obstetrical Monitoring Tools: A Retrospective Cohort Study. Z Geburtshilfe Neonatol. 2019;223(3):157-168.
  4. Waldenström U, Ekéus C. Risk of obstetric anal sphincter injury increases with maternal age irrespective of parity: a population-based register study. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2017;17(1):306.
  5. Utomo B, Sucahya PK, Romadlona NA, Robertson AS, Aryanty RI, et al. The impact of family planning on maternal mortality in Indonesia: what future contribution can be expected? Popul Health Metr. 2021;19(1):2.
  6. Adnyana IBP, Liwang F, Negara KS, Manuaba IBP, Bhargah A, Prabawa IPY. Clinical risk factor of preeclamp- sia: a five-year retrospective study in Bali Royal Hospital, Bali-Indonesia. Gineco.eu. 2018;14(53):89-93.
  7. Goh R, Goh D, Ellepola H. Perineal tears - A review. Aust J Gen Pract. 2018;47(1-2):35-38.
  8. Singh S, Thakur T, Chandhiok N, Dhillon BS. Pattern of episiotomy use & its immediate complications among vaginal deliveries in 18 tertiary care hospitals in India. Indian J Med Res. 2016;143(4):474-480.
  9. Saadia Z. Rates and Indicators for Episiotomy in Modern Obstetrics - a study from Saudi Arabia. Mater Sociomed. 2014;26(3):188-190.
  10. Samuelsson E, Ladfors L, Lindblom BG, Hagberg H. A prospective observational study on tears during vaginal delivery: occurrences and risk factors. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2002;81(1):44-49.
  11. Smith LA, Price N, Simonite V, Burns EE. Incidence of and risk factors for perineal trauma: a prospective observational study. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2013;13:59.
  12. Edqvist M, Hildingsson I, Mollberg M, Lundgren I, Lindgren H. Midwives' Management during the Second Stage of Labor in Relation to Second-Degree Tears-An Experimental Study. Birth. 2017;44(1):86-94.
  13. Kartal B, Kızılırmak A, Calpbinici P, Demir G. Retrospective analysis of episiotomy prevalence. J Turk Ger Gynecol Assoc. 2017;18(4):190-194.
  14. Ginath S, Elyashiv O, Weiner E, Sagiv R, Bar J, Menczer J, et al. The optimal angle of the mediolateral episiotomy at crowning of the head during labor. Int Urogynecol J. 2017;28(12):1795-1799.
  15. Wiyati PS, Adawiyah R, Dewantiningrum J, Pramono BA. Maternal and perinatal outcomes with covid-19: lesson learned from the tertiary hospital. Bali Medical Journal. 2021;10(1):442-447.
  16. Pasc A, Navolan D, Pușcașiu L, Ionescu CA, Szasz FA, Carabineanu A, et al. A multicenter cross-sectional study of episiotomy practice in Romania. J Eval Clin Pract. 2019;25(2):306-311.
  17. de Tayrac R, Panel L, Masson G, Mares P. Episiotomy and prevention of perineal and pelvic floor injuries. J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris). 2006;35(1 Suppl):1S24-1S31.
  18. Baghestan E, Irgens LM, Børdahl PE, Rasmussen S. Trends in risk factors for obstetric anal sphincter injuries in Norway. Obstet Gynecol. 2010;116(1):25-34.
  19. Gurol-Urganci I, Cromwell DA, Edozien LC, Mahmood TA, Adams EJ, Richmond DH, Templeton A, van der Meulen JH. Third- and fourth-degree perineal tears among primiparous women in England between 2000 and 2012: time trends and risk factors. BJOG. 2013;120(12):1516-25.
  20. Said AS, Manji KP. Risk factors and outcomes of fetal macrosomia in a tertiary centre in Tanzania: a case-control study. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2016;16(1):243.
  21. Levin G, Rottenstreich A, Cahan T, Ilan H, Shai D, Tsur A, Meyer R. Does birthweight have a role in the effect of episiotomy on anal sphincter injury? Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2020;301(1):171-177.
  22. Jansson MH, Franzén K, Hiyoshi A, Tegerstedt G, Dahlgren H, Nilsson K. Risk factors for perineal and vaginal tears in primiparous women - the prospective POPRACT-cohort study. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2020;20(1):749.
  23. Durnea CM, Jaffery AE, Gauthaman N, Doumouchtsis SK. Effect of body mass index on the incidence of perineal trauma. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2018;141(2):166-170.
  24. Ballesteros-Meseguer C, Carrillo-García C, Meseguer-de-Pedro M, Canteras-Jordana M, Martínez-Roche ME. Episiotomy and its relationship to various clinical variables that influence its performance. Rev Lat Am Enfermagem. 2016;24:e2793.

How to Cite

Megadhana, I. W., Indrawan, I. G. S., Sanjaya, I. N. H., & Aryana, M. B. D. (2022). The prevalence and characteristics of perineal rupture during vaginal delivery at Sanglah General Hospital and Regional Hospitals in Bali from January 2018 until December 2019 period. Bali Medical Journal, 11(1), 356–359. https://doi.org/10.15562/bmj.v11i1.3067

HTML
0

Total
0

Share

Search Panel

I Wayan Megadhana
Google Scholar
Pubmed
BMJ Journal


I Gede Suputra Indrawan
Google Scholar
Pubmed
BMJ Journal


I Nyoman Hariyasa Sanjaya
Google Scholar
Pubmed
BMJ Journal


Made Bagus Dwi Aryana
Google Scholar
Pubmed
BMJ Journal