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Contributing factors to musculoskeletal disorders in women who routinely use high heels

  • O.K Ilham Abdullay Irsyam ,
  • Aga Shahri Putera Ketaren ,
  • Reza Mahruzza Putra ,
  • Steven Tendean ,
  • Andrew Budiartha Budisantoso ,


Introduction: High heels are still the top choice of women's footwear and have an aesthetic function. A previous study showed that high heels were the potential to give musculoskeletal disorders. This study aimed to find the presence of musculoskeletal disorders and the factors influencing the routine and long-term use of high heels amongst bank employees.

Methods: This is an observational study with a cross-sectional design. The research study participant collection was carried out in November - December 2020 in several Bank branches; 233 participants were obtained. Each participant was given a questionnaire about musculoskeletal disorders and the factors influencing high heels used.

Results: It was found that there is a relationship between body mass index (BMI), shoe height, and the length of time used per week for the pain Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) in the use of high heels. However, it was found that there is no relationship between the type of shoes and the pain VAS using high heels.

Conclusion: The higher BMI, shoe height, and the longer time using high heels per week contribute to the increasing pain VAS amongst high heel users.


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How to Cite

Irsyam, O. I. A., Ketaren, A. S. P., Putra, R. M., Tendean, S., & Budisantoso, A. B. (2022). Contributing factors to musculoskeletal disorders in women who routinely use high heels. Bali Medical Journal, 11(2), 711–714.




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O.K Ilham Abdullay Irsyam
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Aga Shahri Putera Ketaren
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Reza Mahruzza Putra
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Steven Tendean
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Andrew Budiartha Budisantoso
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