Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer

Blastocystis hominis infection in HIV/AIDS children with extraintestinal symptom: a case report

  • Made Bayu Permasutha ,
  • I Wayan Adi Pranata ,
  • Ajib Diptyanusa ,
  • E. Elsa Herdiana Murhandarwati ,

Abstract

Background: Blastocystis hominis is an intestinal parasite that can induce both intra- and extraintestinal symptoms. This article aims to describe the symptom findings in cases of HIV children co-infected with B. hominis.

Case Presentation: A 3-year-old boy with HIV/AIDS came with diarrhea and skin rashes. The direct smear technique, formalin-ethyl acetate concentration technique, Jones medium culture, and trichrome staining were all used to investigate a single stool specimen from this patient. The results of the examination showed B. hominis infection with intensity <5/high power field (HPF). Extraintestinal symptoms such as skin rashes were not seen in this patient after appropriate treatment.

Conclusion: B. hominis infection can cause extraintestinal symptoms such as a red rash on the skin. When a patient presents with a skin rash of unknown origin, having their stool tested for parasites is a concern.

References

  1. Data and Information Center of Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia. Infodatin HIV AIDS. Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia [Internet]. 2020. p. 1–8. Available from: https://pusdatin.kemkes.go.id/resources/download/pusdatin/infodatin/infodatin-2020-HIV.pdf
  2. Smith PD, Lane HC, Gill VEEJ, Manischewitz JF, Quinnan G V, Fauci AS, et al. Intestinal Infections in Patients with the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Annals of Internal Medicine. 1988;108(3):328–33. Available from: https://www.acpjournals.org/doi/abs/10.7326/0003-4819-108-3-328
  3. Eshetu T, Sibhatu G, Megiso M, Abere A, Baynes HW, Biadgo B, et al. Intestinal Parasitosis and Their Associated Factors among People Living with HIV at University of Gondar Hospital, Northwest-Ethiopia. Ethiop J Health Sci. 2017;27(4):411–20.
  4. Ahmed S, Karanis P. Blastocystis spp., Ubiquitous Parasite of Human, Animals and Environment. In 2018.
  5. Ocaña-Losada C, Cuenca-Gómez JA, Cabezas-Fernández MT, Vázquez-Villegas J, Soriano-Pérez MJ, Cabeza-Barrera I, et al. Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of intestinal parasite infection by Blastocystis hominis. Revista Clínica Española (English Edition). 2018;218(3):115–20. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2254887418300328
  6. Tan KSW, Mirza H, Teo JDW, Wu B, MacAry PA. Current Views on the Clinical Relevance of Blastocystis spp. Current Infectious Disease Reports. 2010;12(1):28–35. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11908-009-0073-8
  7. Kesuma Y, Firmansyah A, Bardosono S, Sari IP, Kurniawan A. Blastocystis ST-1 is associated with Irritable Bowel Syndrome-diarrhoea (IBS-D) in Indonesian adolescences. Parasite Epidemiology and Control. 2019;6:e00112. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2405673118300618
  8. Ajjampur SSR, Tan KSW. Pathogenic mechanisms in Blastocystis spp. — Interpreting results from in vitro and in vivo studies. Parasitology International. 2016;65(6, Part B):772–9. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1383576916301209
  9. Biedermann T, Hartmann K, Sing A, Przybilla B. Hypersensitivity to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and chronic urticaria cured by treatment of Blastocystis hominis infection. British Journal of Dermatology. 2002;146(6):1113–4. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2133.2002.473212.x
  10. Cassano N, Scoppio BM, Loviglio MC, Vena GA. Remission of delayed pressure urticaria after eradication of Blastocystis hominis. Acta Derm Venereol. 2005;85(4):357–8. Available from: http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/16191864
  11. Gupta R, Parsi K. Chronic urticaria due to Blastocystis hominis. Australasian Journal of Dermatology. 2006;47(2):117–9. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-0960.2006.00244.x
  12. Tan KSW. New insights on classification, identification, and clinical relevance of Blastocystis spp. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2008;21(4):639–65. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18854485
  13. Deng L, Chai Y, Zhou Z, Liu H, Zhong Z, Hu Y, et al. Epidemiology of Blastocystis sp. infection in China: a systematic review. Parasite. 2019/07/16. 2019;26:41. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31309925
  14. Stensvold CR, Clark CG. Current status of Blastocystis: A personal view. Parasitology International. 2016;65(6, Part B):763–71. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1383576916301544
  15. Sari IP, Benung MR, Wahdini S, Kurniawan A. Diagnosis and Identification of Blastocystis Subtypes in Primary School Children in Jakarta. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics. 2018;64(3):208–14. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1093/tropej/fmx051
  16. Wang W, Cuttell L, Bielefeldt-Ohmann H, Inpankaew T, Owen H, Traub RJ. Diversity of Blastocystis subtypes in dogs in different geographical settings. Parasites & Vectors. 2013;6(1):215. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-3305-6-215
  17. Villafranca RC, Jiménez PR. Infection by Blastocystis sp.: literature review. Revista Médica Electrónica. 2012;34(5).
  18. Zhang S-X, Kang F-Y, Chen J-X, Tian L-G, Geng L-L. Risk factors for Blastocystis infection in HIV/AIDS patients with highly active antiretroviral therapy in Southwest China. Infect Dis Poverty. 2019;8(05):83–90.
  19. Asghari A, Sadeghipour Z, Hassanipour S, Abbasali Z, Ebrahimzadeh-Parikhani H, Hashemzaei M, et al. Association between Blastocystis sp. infection and immunocompromised patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2021;28(43):60308–28.

How to Cite

Permasutha, M. B., Pranata, I. W. A., Diptyanusa, A., & Murhandarwati, E. E. H. (2022). Blastocystis hominis infection in HIV/AIDS children with extraintestinal symptom: a case report. Bali Medical Journal, 11(2), 498–500. https://doi.org/10.15562/bmj.v11i2.3269

HTML
0

Total
0

Share

Search Panel

Made Bayu Permasutha
Google Scholar
Pubmed
BMJ Journal


I Wayan Adi Pranata
Google Scholar
Pubmed
BMJ Journal


Ajib Diptyanusa
Google Scholar
Pubmed
BMJ Journal


E. Elsa Herdiana Murhandarwati
Google Scholar
Pubmed
BMJ Journal