Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer

Exploring academic procrastination among nursing students during pandemic COVID-19


Introduction: An instrument that is frequently used to gauge academic procrastination is the Procrastination Assessment Scale for Students (PASS). During covid-19 pandemic the chance to get more into procrastination mode is higher because while students is studying at home they have something distracted their mind such as watching movie, using social media and the others things. The objective of this study was to evaluate the constructs of validity and reliability of the procrastination assessment scale for nursing students during the pandemic COVID-19 are examined.

Method: It is a cross sectional study where distributed to 416 nursing students and the data taken by stratified sampling. The scale consists of two part, part one is area of procrastination had 18 items and second part is reason for procrastination had 26 items. The data was analyzed with Stata.

Results: The reliability of first part was 0.6615 and the second part was 0.9136. The model was acceptable where root mean squared error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.108, standardized root mean square residual (SMRS) = 0.063, comparative fit index 0.957, CI 90%.

Conclusion: Based on the investigation, the dimensions and indicators that make up the academic procrastination construct are credible and valid ways to assess it among Indonesian nursing students.


  1. Ferrari JR, O’Callaghan J, Newbegin I. Prevalence of procrastination in the United States, United Kingdom, and Australia: Arousal and avoidance delays among adults. N Am J Psychol. 2005;7(1):1–6.
  2. Steel P, Klingsieck KB. Academic Procrastination: Psychological Antecedents Revisited. Aust Psychol. 2016;51(1):36–46.
  3. Karimi Moonaghi H, Baloochi Beydokhti T. Academic procrastination and its characteristics: A Narrative Review. Futur Med Educ J. 2017;7(2):43–50.
  4. Bashir L. Social Networking Usage, Academic Procrastination and Performance Among University Students: Role of Self Efficacy and Metacognitive Beliefs. Unpubl PhD. 2019;(11512050):Punjab.
  5. Ellis, A. & Knaus WJ. Overcoming procrastination. In: Overcoming procrastination. Sgnet Books; 1977. p. 41–56.
  6. Ferrari JR, Scher SJ. Toward an understanding of academic and nonacademic tasks procrastinated by students: The use of daily logs. Psychol Sch. 2000;37(4):359–66.
  7. Peixoto EM, Pallini AC, Vallerand RJ, Rahimi S, Silva MV. The role of passion for studies on academic procrastination and mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic. Soc Psychol Educ. 2021;
  8. Cucinotta D, Vanelli M. WHO declares COVID-19 a pandemic. Acta Biomed. 2020;91(1):157–60.
  9. Jia J, Jiang Q, Lin XH. Academic Anxiety and Self-handicapping Among Medical Students During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Moderated Mediation Model. Res Sq. 2020;1–22.
  10. Solomon LJ, Rothblum ED. Academic procrastination: Frequency and cognitive-behavioral correlates. J Couns Psychol. 1984;31(4):503–9.
  11. Mortazavi F, Mortazavi SS, Khosrorad R. Psychometric properties of the procrastination assessment scale-student (PASS) in a student sample of sabzevar university of medical sciences. Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2015;17(9).
  12. Onwuegbuzie AJ. Academic procrastination and statistics anxiety. Assess Eval High Educ. 2004;29(1):3–19.
  13. Rusdi M, Hidayah N, Rahmawati H, Hitipeuw I. Academic procrastination data of students in Makassar, Indonesia. Data Br. 2020;33.
  14. Yockey RD, Kralowec CJ. Confirmatory factor analysis of the procrastination assessment scale for students. SAGE Open. 2015;5(4).
  15. Hayat AA, Kojuri J, Amini M. Academic procrastination of medical students: The role of Internet addiction. J Adv Med Educ Prof. 2020;8(2):83–9.
  16. Liimatta PO. The Relationship between Living Situation, In Person and Online Social Support and Academic Procrastination During the COVID-19 Pandemic. Enschede: University of Twente; 2021.
  17. García-montalvo GO. Academic Procrastination in University and Covid-19. Int J Latest Res Humanit Soc Sci. 2021;04(02):142–3.

How to Cite

Budury, S. ., Setiawan, A. H. ., Masruroh, N., & Nero, F. D. L. . (2022). Exploring academic procrastination among nursing students during pandemic COVID-19. Bali Medical Journal, 11(2), 757–760.




Search Panel