Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer

Age and Gender as The Risk Factors for Mortality Rate in COVID-19 Patients


Background: Coronavirus disease-19 is a disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. This virus is the newest type of coronavirus identified in humans. A recent study in 2022 in several different age groups found that older age, men, comorbidities such as hypertension, diabetes, and malignancy, were independent risk factors for mortality in COVID-19 inpatients. This study aimed to determine the risk factors for age and gender in the COVID-19 mortality rate.

Method: The design study was a retrospective case control. The research subjects were 6,697 patients from the secondary data medical record from March 2020 to September 2021 at Pasar Minggu Regional General Hospital.

Results: Results obtained 3313 men (49.5%) and 3384 women (50.5%). Men patients have a 1.5 times greater risk of mortality rate [OR 1.5 (1.3-1. 7)] compared to women. Elderly patients have a 3 times greater mortality risk than non-elderly people [OR 3.1 (2.6-3.7)]. There was a correlation between the after-treatment condition and age (p = 0.05).

Conclusion: This study concludes that the elderly and men are the risk factors for the mortality rate in COVID-19 patients at Pasar Minggu Regional General Hospital.


  1. Health IM of. COVID-19 Situation Bulletin [Internet]. 2020. Available from:
  2. WHO. WHO Coronavirus (COVID-19) Dashboard [Internet]. 2022. Available from:
  3. Malik J, Ahmed S, Al E. The Impact of COVID-19 On Comorbidities: A Review Of Recent Updates For Combating It. Saudi J Biol Sci. 2022;29(5):3586–99.
  4. Zhang H, Wu Y, et al. Age-Related Risk Factors and Complications of Patients With COVID-19: A Population-Based Retrospective Study. Front Med. 2022;8:757459.
  5. Singhal S, Kumar P, Singh S, Saha S, Dey AB. Clinical features and outcomes of COVID-19 in older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Geriatr. 2021;21(1):1-9.
  6. Z W, Qiang W, Ke H. A Handbook of 2019-nCoV Pneumonia Control and Prevention. Hubei SciTechnol Press. 2020;1–108.
  7. Wiersinga WJ, Rhodes A, Cheng AC, Peacock SJ, Prescott HC. Pathophysiology, Transmission, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): A Review. In JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association (Vol. 324. JAMA - J Am Med Assoc. 2020;324(8):782-793.
  8. Parasher A. COVID-19: Current understanding of its Pathophysiology, Clinical presentation and Treatment. Postgraduate Medical Journal. 2021;97(1147):312-320.
  9. CDC. COVID-19 Virus [Internet]. 2020. Available from:
  10. Amber L. Mueller, Maeve S.McNamara, David A. Sinclair. Why does COVID-19 disproportionately affect older people? Aging (Albany NY). 2020;12(10):9959.
  11. Al-Zahrani J. SARS-CoV-2 associated COVID-19 in the geriatric population: A brief narrative review. Saudi J Biol Sci. 2021;28:738–743.
  12. Covid-19 ITF. Distribution Map (internet) [Internet]. Available from:
  13. Karyono DR, Wicaksana AL. Current prevalence, characteristics, and comorbidities of patients with COVID-19 in Indonesia. J Community Empower Heal. 2020;3(2):77.
  14. Baihaqi F, et al. Faktor-Faktor yang Berhubungan dengan Lama Rawat Inap Pasien COVID-19 di RSUD Serui Provinsi Papua:Studi Potong Lintang. J Penyakit Dalam Indones. 2021;8(4):187–94.
  15. Moran K, et al. A Meta-Analysis of the Association between Gender and Protective Behaviors in Response to Respiratory Epidemics and Pandemics. PLoS One. 2016;11(10):e0164541.
  16. Griffith D, et al. Men and COVID-19: A Biopsychosocial Approach to Understanding Sex Differences in Mortality and Recommendations for Practice and Policy Interventions. CDC [Internet]. 2020;17(E63). Available from:
  17. Pachchhapurkar PM. Proposed estrogen therapy for covid 19 and other microbial infections. INDIAN J Appl Res. 2020;10(9):13-15.
  18. Kuehn B. COVID-19 in Clinicians—More Cases in Women, More Deaths in Men. JAMA - J Am Med Assoc. 2021;325(15):1498.
  19. Doerre A, Doblhammer G. The influence of gender on COVID-19 infections and mortality in Germany: Insights from age and gender-specific modeling of contact rates, infections, and deaths in the early phase of the pandemic. PLoS One. 2022;17(5):e0268119.
  20. Bambra C, et al. COVID-19 and the gender health paradox. Scand J Public Health. 2021;49:17–26.
  21. Jin J, et al. Gender Differences in Patients With COVID-19: Focus on Severity and Mortality [Internet]. 2020:152. Available from:

How to Cite

Rachmawati, M. R., Amiarno, Y., Restuti, Y., Guslianti, W., Adriyanti, L., & Fajriah, N. (2022). Age and Gender as The Risk Factors for Mortality Rate in COVID-19 Patients. Bali Medical Journal, 11(3), 2017–2021.




Search Panel