Comparing the Effect of Human Wisdom Teeth Pulverized in Micron and Nano Particle Dimensions as Grafting Material in Healing of Tibial Bone Defect

Mostafa Govahi , Alireza Navab Azam, Seyed Hossein Tabatabai, Fatemeh Mirjalili

Mostafa Govahi
Assistant Professor and specialist in oral and maxillofacial surgery, Shahid Sadoughi Faculty of Dentistry, Yazd, Iran. Email: mostafagavahi@gmail.com

Alireza Navab Azam
Assistant Professor and specialist in oral and maxillofacial surgery, Shahid Sadoughi Faculty of Dentistry, Yazd, Iran

Seyed Hossein Tabatabai
Associate professorand specialist of oral and maxillofacial pathology, Shahid Sadoughi Faculty of Dentistry, Yazd, Iran

Fatemeh Mirjalili
Assistant Professor of Materials Engineering and nanocomposite, Azad University of Meybod, Yazd, Iran
Online First: November 23, 2016 | Cite this Article
Govahi, M., Azam, A., Tabatabai, S., Mirjalili, F. 2016. Comparing the Effect of Human Wisdom Teeth Pulverized in Micron and Nano Particle Dimensions as Grafting Material in Healing of Tibial Bone Defect. Bali Medical Journal 5(1): 185-192. DOI:10.15562/bmj.v5i1.347

Background: In this article, we decided to introduce an available, affordable and biocompatible material from human teeth using nanotechnology to repair bone defects. Totally impacted wisdom teeth of human, which had been removed by surgery, were prepared as powder in two particle sizes of 500 micron and nano (up to 100 nm) after sterilization. Method: Test cases were eight white rabbits of New Zealand species that were divided into 2 groups. Pores with 6 × 6 mm dimensions were created at hamstring area of tibia bone. In left leg tibia’s pore, nanoparticles powder and in the right leg tibia’s pore, micro particles powders were placed. The groups of two were sacrificed after 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks. Samples underwent histomorphometric analysis and radiological analysis. The results showed the superiority of nano-groups in the percentage of new bone formation (26.62±10.88) over micro-groups (14.36±8.4) to (P-value = 0.015). Obtained Hounsfield number for micro-particle group was 2477±480 and for nanoparticle group was 1387±429 (p-value = 0.001). The differences in value soft bone vitality, inflammation, and foreign body reaction were not significant between the two groups of micro and nano. In micro particle group, despite suitable biocompatibility and Osseo integration, due to higher density and degree of crystalline, absorption and replacement rates by new bone and overall percentage of new bone formed were lower than nano group.


- Van Heest A, Swiontkowski M. Bone-graft substitutes. The Lancet. 1999;353:S28-S9.

- Branemark P. Osseointegrated implants in the treatment of edentulous jaw, Experience from a 10-year period. Scand J Plast Reconstr Surg. 1977;1:1-132.

- Albrektsson T, Brånemark P-I, Hansson H-A, Lindström J. Osseointegrated titanium implants: requirements for ensuring a long-lasting, direct bone-to-implant anchorage in man. Acta Orthopaedica Scandinavica. 1981;52(2):155-70.

- Huggins C. The formation of bone under the influence of epithelium of the urinary tract. Archives of Surgery. 1931;22(3):377-408.

- Levander G. A study of bone regeneration. Surg Gynecol Obstet. 1938;67:705-14.

- URIST MR, McLEAN FC. Osteogenetic potency and new-bone formation by induction in transplants to the anterior chamber of theeye. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1952;34(2):443-75.

- Costantino PD, Friedman CD. Synthetic bone graft substitutes. Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America. 1994;27(5):1037-74.

- Cypher TJ, Grossman JP. Biological principles of bone graft healing. The Journal of foot and ankle surgery. 1996;35(5):413-7.

- Andersson L, Kahnberg K-E, Pogrel MA. Oral and maxillofacial surgery: John Wiley & Sons; 2012.

- Triffitt J. The stem cell of the osteoblast. Principles of bone biology. 1996:39-50.

- Andersson L. Patient self‐evaluation of intra‐oral bone grafting treatment to the maxillary frontal region. Dental Traumatology. 2008;24(2):164-9.

- Sàndor GK, Nish IA, Carmichael RP. Comparison of conventional surgery with motorized trephine in bone harvest from the anterior iliac crest. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontology. 2003;95(2):150-5.

- Nkenke E, Schultze‐Mosgau S, Kloss F, Neukam F, Radespiel‐Tröger M. Morbidity of harvesting of chin grafts: a prospective study. Clinical Oral Implants Research. 2001;12(5):495-502.

- Raghoebar GM, Louwerse C, Kalk WW, Vissink A. Morbidity of chin bone harvesting. Clinical oral implants research. 2001;12(5):503-7.

- Hallman M, Sennerby L, Lundgren S. A clinical and histologic evaluation of implant integration in the posterior maxilla after sinus floor augmentation with autogenous bone, bovine hydroxyapatite, or a 20: 80 mixture. International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Implants. 2002;17(5):635-43.

- Habibovic P, de Groot K. Osteoinductive biomaterials—properties and relevance in bone repair. Journal of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. 2007;1(1):25-32.

- Conrad EU, Gretch DR, Obermeyer KR, Moogk MS, Sayers M, Wilson JJ, et al. Transmission of the hepatitis-C virus by tissue transplantation. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1995;77(2):214-24.

- Tomford WW. Transmission of disease through transplantation of musculoskeletal allografts. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1995; 77(11):1742-54.

- Liao S, Cui F, Zhang W, Feng Q. Hierarchically biomimetic bone scaffold materials: nano‐HA/collagen/PLA composite. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials. 2004;69(2):158-65.

- Murugan R, Ramakrishna S. Bioresorbable composite bone paste using polysaccharide based nanohydroxyapatite. Biomaterials. 2004;25(17):3829-35.

- Behnamghader A, Bagheri N, Raissi B, Moztarzadeh F. Phase development and sintering behaviour of biphasic HA-TCP calcium phosphate materials prepared from hydroxyapatite and bioactive glass. Journalof Materials Science: Materials in Medicine. 2008;19(1):197-201.

- Kokubo T, Kim H-M, Kawashita M. Novel bioactive materials with different mechanical properties. Biomaterials. 2003;24(13):2161-75.

- LeGeros RZ. Calcium phosphates in oral biology andmedicine. Monographs in oral science. 1990;15:1-201.

- Zhang X, Chang W, Lee P, Wang Y, Yang M, Li J, et al. Polymer-ceramic spiral structured scaffolds for bone tissue engineering: effect of hydroxyapatite composition on human fetal osteoblasts. PloS one. 2014;9(1):e85871.

- Andersson L, Ramzi A, Joseph B. Studies on dentin grafts to bone defects in rabbit tibia and mandible; development of an experimental model. Dental Traumatology. 2009;25(1):78-83.

- Manjubala I, Sivakumar M, Sampathkumar T, Panduranga Rao K. Synthesis and characterization of functional gradient materials using Indian corals. Journal of MaterialsScience: Materials in Medicine. 2000;11(11):705-9.

- Krishna DSR, Siddharthan A, Seshadri S, Kumar TS. A novel route for synthesis of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite from eggshell waste. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine. 2007;18(9):1735-43.

- Qin X, Raj RM, Liao XF, Shi W, Ma B, Gong SQ, et al. Using rigidly fixed autogenous tooth graft to repair bone defect: an animal model. Dental Traumatology. 2014;30(5):380-4.

- Pilloni A, Pompa G, Saccucci M, Di Carlo G, Rimondini L, Brama M, et al. Analysis of human alveolar osteoblast behavior on a nano-hydroxyapatite substrate: an in vitro study. BMC oral health. 2014;14(1):1.

- Jain R, Kaur H, Jain S, Kapoor D, Nanda T, Jain M. Comparison of nano-sized hydroxyapatite and β-tricalcium phosphate in the treatment of human periodontal intrabony defects. Journal of clinical and diagnostic research: JCDR. 2014;8(10):ZC74.

- Kannan S, Vieira S, Olhero S, Pina S, e Silva OdC, Ferreira J. Synthesis, mechanical and biological characterization of ionic doped carbonated hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate mixtures. Acta Biomaterialia. 2011;7(4):1835-43.

- Zhao H, Ma L, Gao C, Wang J, Shen J. Fabrication and properties of injectable β-tricalcium phosphate particles/fibrin gel composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Materials Science and Engineering: C. 2009;29(3):836-42.

- Cho BC, Kim TG, Yang JD, Chung HY, Park JW, Kwon IC, et al. Effect of calcium sulfate-chitosan composite: pellet on bone formation in bone defect. Journal of Craniofacial Surgery. 2005;16(2):213-24.

- Mescher AL. Junqueira's basic histology: text and atlas: Mcgraw-hill; 2013.

- Hench LL. Bioceramics: from concept to clinic. Journal of the American Ceramic Society. 1991;74(7):1487-510.

- Schnettler R, Stahl JP, Alt V, Pavlidis T, Dingeldein E, Wenisch PDS. Calcium phosphate-based bone substitutes. European Journalof Trauma. 2004;30(4):219-29.

- Thorwarth M, Schultze-Mosgau S, Kessler P, Wiltfang J, Schlegel KA. Bone regeneration in osseous defects using a resorbable nanoparticular hydroxyapatite. Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery. 2005;63(11):1626-33.

- Strietzel FP, Reichart PA, Graf HL. Lateral alveolar ridge augmentation using a synthetic nano‐crystalline hydroxyapatite bone substitution material (Ostim®). Preliminary clinical and histological results. Clinical oral implants research. 2007;18(6):743.51-

- Maeno S, Niki Y, Matsumoto H, Morioka H, Yatabe T, Funayama A, et al. The effect of calcium ion concentration on osteoblast viability, proliferation and differentiation in monolayer and 3D culture. Biomaterials. 2005;26(23):4847-55.

- Nagano M, Nakamura T, Kokubo T, Tanahashi M, Ogawa M. Differences of bone bonding ability and degradation behaviour in vivo between amorphous calcium phosphate and highly crystalline hydroxyapatite coating. Biomaterials. 1996;17(18):1771-7.

Article Views      : 0
PDF Downloads : 0