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Risk factor associated with depressive symptoms among adolescence during COVID-19 pandemic in Denpasar Bali, Indonesia


Introduction: The Corona Virus-19 (COVID-19) pandemic is the biggest health crisis for generations and has a devastating impact on lives around the world. Several studies found an increase in negative emotions such as anxiety, depression, irritability, and decreased positive emotions (Oxford happiness) and life satisfaction. One form of psychosocial disorder in adolescents is depression and it can be fatal

Objective: To know the risk factors associated with depressive symptoms in adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic

Methods: A cross-sectional design study was conducted in junior high school and senior high school students in Denpasar Bali, Indonesia for the period December 2020-January 2021. Symptoms of depression were assessed using the Children's depression inventory (CDI). Bivariate analysis using chi-square test and followed by multivariate analysis using logistic regression.

Results: Total subjects were 636, female 70.3%, mean age 14.1 years. 89.6% of the subject's parents work, and 43.4% with low-middle income. 90.9% of the subjects lived with their father and mother, 31.6% experienced bullying, and 2% experienced sexual abuse. Total of 29.4% of the subjects experienced depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms were associated with female gender (PR 1.580; 95%CI 1.046-2.387; p=0.03), age ≥15 years (PR 1.644; 95%CI 1.133-2.384; p=0.009), bullying (PR 2.232; 95%CI 1.537-3.241; p=0.001), sexual abuse (PR 4.982; 95%CI 1.279-18.710; p=0.002) and history of contact with or have suffered from COVID-19 (PR 2.823; 95%CI 1.501-5.310; p =0.001).

Conclusion: Depressive symptoms were associated with female gender, age ≥15 years, bullying, sexual abuse, and a history of contact with or having suffered from COVID-19.


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How to Cite

I Gusti Ngurah Sanjaya Putra, Jessica Sugiharto, I Gusti Ayu Trisna Windiani, I Gusti Agung Ngurah Sugitha Adnyana, Soetjiningsih, & Ni Luh Sukma Pratiwi. (2022). Risk factor associated with depressive symptoms among adolescence during COVID-19 pandemic in Denpasar Bali, Indonesia. Bali Medical Journal, 11(2), 1071–1076.




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I Gusti Ngurah Sanjaya Putra
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Jessica Sugiharto
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I Gusti Ayu Trisna Windiani
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I Gusti Agung Ngurah Sugitha Adnyana
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Ni Luh Sukma Pratiwi
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