Background: IL-1 is postulated as a cytokine that plays a fundamental role in the pathophysiology of several skin disorders or diseases. Melasma is a form of hyperpigmentation with a symmetrically distributed predilection for facial features. Due to its elusive pathogenesis, it is believed that the inflammatory factor plays a role in melasma. Increased or decreased IL-1RA concentrations may correlate with the severity of melasma. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the correlation between the IL-1RA (86bp VNTR) polymorphisms and the severity of melasma among a Javanese female population.
Methods: The study involved 79 individuals with melasma and used a cross-sectional design. The severity of melasma was assessed using the MASI (Melasma Area and Severity Index). The data were analyzed using a Chi-square test and Odds Ratio (OR). The genomic DNA from the patients' blood was examined and analyzed using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method.
Results: There was an increase in the frequency of IL-1Ra*1/1(410/410) genotype in melasma with a mild severity and of IL-1Ra*1/2(410/240) genotype in melasma with moderate severity (OR: 0.74, 95%CI: 0.26- 2.13, p: 0.42). The allele frequency of IL-1Ra*1/1 was 55.70% at a mild degree and 44.30% at a moderate degree (OR: 0.29-2.11, p: 0.65).
Conclusions: There was no correlation between IL-1Ra VNTR and the severity of melasma; however, it was found that the IL-1Ra*1/1(410/410) genotype and allele frequency tended to be higher in mild melasma, although it was statistically insignificant.