Background: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an easily contagious disease, and not much is known about the characteristics of COVID-19, both in terms of susceptibility, severity, and spreadability of various SARS-CoV-2 strains. Patient genomic factors, especially related to genomic polymorphisms that affect the body's immune system, can influence the course of infectious diseases. The aim of this study is to get an adequate picture regarding gene polymorphisms, both susceptibility and related to the clinical degree in COVID-19 patients.
Methods: The PCR preparations were carried out in the Biomedical laboratory of the Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sebelas Maret. The qualitative PCR (qPCR) examination was sent to the Genetica Science laboratory, Tangerang, West Java. The research subjects were divided into 3 groups, namely COVID-19 patients with no symptoms, COVID-19 patients with mild-moderate symptoms, COVID-19 patients with severe-critical symptoms. The research subjects were taken 6 cc of venous blood (3 cc for examination of serum IL-6 and TNFα levels and 3 cc for DNA examination).
Results: Serum levels of IL-6 and TNF-α in the clinical grade group were almost all above normal values. The frequency of TNF- α polymorphisms (-376G/A) all showed homozygote GG. TNF-α (-308G/A) also showed homozygote GG was dominant for SARS CoV2. IL-6 (-572G/C) polymorphism for cases requiring medium and severe clinical degree hospitalization was found to have more C allele than G allele. IL-6 polymorphism (intron A/G) the G allele is less common in cases requiring hospitalization.
Conclusion: TNF-α(−308A) allele has an influence on the development of clinical symptoms of SARS CoV2 infection. The rs1800796GG genotype in the IL-6 promoter contributes to milder symptoms in SARS CoV2 infection. Allelic variants of the gene under study may show different effects in other races depending on their interactions with other risk factors.