Background: Sarcopenia is a negative predictor of colorectal cancer outcomes, while colorectal cancer is at risk of developing malnutrition due to the disease process. This study aims to determine the relationship between sarcopenia and nutritional status and analyze the effect of sarcopenia on the outcome of rectal cancer patients.
Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted on colorectal cancer patients of Javanese ethnicity who performed preoperative abdominal CT scans at dr. Sardjito Hospital in Yogyakarta between June and December 2019. Sarcopenia is based on measuring muscle mass index at the third lumbar vertebra level <36.0 cm2/m2 for men and < 29.0 cm2/m2 for women. Statistical analyzes using SPSS version 20 for Windows were performed to find out the correlation.
Results: Of 46 patients, 56.5% were male and 43.5% female, with a mean age of 53.57. Sarcopenia was found in 47.8% of patients, mostly in women than men (63.6% vs. 36.4% p=0.019). Underweight was mostly found in the sarcopenia group compared to non-sarcopenia (59.1% vs. 20.8% p=0.019). The sarcopenia group has longer LOS than non-sarcopenia (14.73±13.474 vs. 12.29 ±4.165; p=0.404). The mortality of the sarcopenia group was 1.56 times higher compared to the non-sarcopenia (57.1% vs. 42.9%; OR=1.56; 95%CI=0.307-7.890; p=0.964). Haemoglobin, albumin, total protein, CEA, histopathology, tumor location and procedure were not significantly correlated to sarcopenia.
Conclusion: Underweight nutritional status and females are correlated with sarcopenia. Sarcopenia tends to be treated longer and has higher mortality than non-sarcopenia.