Background: The contracted socket is caused by fibrosis leading to the shortening of the orbital tissue. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a profibrotic factor in postoperative wound healing. The novel option to prevent fibrosis is the use of fibrin glue. This study aims to evaluate the role of fibrin glue in reducing the VEGF expression in cells that cause post-socket surgery scar.
Methods: An in vivo experimental study using an animal model was conducted. We used twenty eyes of white rabbit species as the study sample. The evisceration was carried out and distributed to the animals in four experimental groups consisting of the control group, the MMC group (0.1 ml of mitomycin-C (MMC) 0.4 mg/ml), the triamcinolone acetonide (TCA) group (0.1 ml of TCA 40 mg/ml), and the fibrin glue group (0,1 ml of fibrin glue). The treatment was performed through injection of the subconjunctival. After 14 days, rabbits were euthanized, and conjunctiva samples were cut. Immunoreactivity scores (IRS) were used to analyze the expression of VEGF in epithelia conjunctiva with a significant level of p <0.05. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 26 for Windows.
Results: All groups showed a statistically significant difference in VEGF expression with a p-value 0,000 (p<0,05). The VEGF level was significantly lower in the three treatment groups compared with the control group. The VEGF expression was highest for the control group, followed by fibrin glue, TCA and MMC group. We found significant differences between the control group and the three treatment groups; the MMC group (p=0.001), the TCA group (p=0.002), and the fibrin glue group (p=0.005). While differences in VEGF expression between the three treatment groups could not be proven statistically.
Conclusion: Fibrin glue is proven to reduce VEGF expression as a marker of fibrosis; thus, fibrin glue can be an alternative anti-fibrotic agent.