Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer

The impact of age, gender, family history of allergy, clinical symptoms, and duration of illness on flare diameter of skin prick test

Abstract

Introduction: Skin prick test (SPT) is a method for diagnosing IgE-mediated allergen sensitization. Although the sensitivity and specificity are quite good, false positive and false negative results are possible. The diameter of the wheal and flare of each allergen can affect the skin prick test measurement, especially if the results of the examination overlap. Because of the usage of the SPT and the emphasis on quality control of health services recently, several variables that can affect the results of SPT must be considered. This study aims to analyze the effect of age, gender, family history of allergy, clinical symptoms, and illness duration on SPT's flare diameter.

Method: This is a cross-sectional study conducted from 2015 to 2020 in Surabaya, Indonesia. Children with possible allergies were tested with a skin prick test at the allergy immunology outpatient clinic of the Dr. Soetomo General Academic Hospital. Inclusion criteria were ≤ 18 years old children, possibly diagnosed with allergies, who had skin prick test. Children with incomplete medical record data were excluded.  The Chi-square test or Fisher exact test to determine the relationship between the independent and dependent variables for nominal data. The p-value was declared significant if P<0.05 to determine the effect between variables on flare diameter on skin prick test. We use SmartPLS to analyse the relationships simultaneously to compare relationships with the regression analysis.

Result: Age, gender, clinical symptoms, and duration of illness did not show a significant effect. In contrast, the flare diameter determined by SPT and the presence of an allergic family had a significant correlation (p = 0.017). Therefore, the appropriate distance between allergens must be specified to prevent overlap of SPT flare diameters.

Conclusion: Member of family allergy affects the diameter of the flare on skin prick test.   

References

  1. Heinzerling L, Mari A, Bergmann KC, Bresciani M, Burbach G, Darsow U, Durham S, Fokkens W, Gjomarkaj M, Haahtela T, Bom AT, Wöhrl S, Maibach H, & Lockey R. The skin prick test - European standards. Clinical and translational allergy. 2013;3(1):3. https://doi.org/10.1186/2045-7022-3-3
  2. Gupta N, Agarwal P, Sachdev A, & Gupta D. Allergy Testing - An Overview. Indian pediatrics. 2019;56(11):951–957.
  3. Bousquet J, Van Cauwenberge P, Khaltaev N, Aria Workshop Group & World Health Organization. Allergic rhinitis and its impact on asthma. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology. 2001;108(5 Suppl):S147–S334. https://doi.org/10.1067/mai.2001.118891
  4. Scichilone N, Callari A, Augugliaro G, Marchese M, Togias A, & Bellia V. The impact of age on prevalence of positive skin prick tests and specific IgE tests. Respiratory medicine. 2011;105(5):651–658. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rmed.2010.12.014
  5. Pawankar R, Canonica GW, Holgate ST & Lockey RF. White Book on Allergy. 1st ed. United Kingdom: A world Federation of Allergy, Asthma, & Clinical Immunology Societies. 2011;102-105.
  6. Mohammad H, Belgrave D, Harding K, Simpson A & Custovic A. The influence of age and gender on allergy test result : implication for the use as biomarkers in childhood asthma. Thorax. 2014;69:94. https://doi.org/10.1136/thoraxjnl-2014-206260.187
  7. Nelson HS, Knoetzer J, & Bucher B. Effect of distance between sites and region of the body on results of skin prick tests. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology. 1996;97(2):596–601. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0091-6749(96)70304-4
  8. Petersen LJ, Mosbech H & Skov PS. Allergen-induced histamine release in intact human skin in vivo assessed by skin microdialysis technique: characterization of factors influencing histamine releasability. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology. 1996;97(2):672–679. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0091-6749(96)70313-5
  9. Antunes J, Borrego L, Romeira A, & Pinto P. Skin prick tests and allergy diagnosis. Allergologia et immunopathologia. 2009;37(3):155–164. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0301-0546(09)71728-8
  10. World Allergy Organization (WAO). White Book on Allergy: Update 2013. World Allergy Organization. Milwaukee. 2013;2:21-2.
  11. Grayson M. Allergy Facts and Figures. 2022.
  12. Loh W, & Tang M. The Epidemiology of Food Allergy in the Global Context. International journal of environmental research and public health. 2018;15(9):2043. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15092043
  13. Endaryanto A. Implikasi klinis imunologi alergi dalam manajemen anak alergi. 1st. ed. Airlangga University Press: Surabaya. 2015:1-249.
  14. Kerkhof M, Dubois AE, Postma DS, Schouten JP, & de Monchy JG. Role and interpretation of total serum IgE measurements in the diagnosis of allergic airway disease in adults. Allergy. 2003;58(9):905–911. https://doi.org/10.1034/j.1398-9995.2003.00230.x
  15. Sandini U, Kukkonen AK, Poussa T, Sandini L, Savilahti E, & Kuitunen M. Protective and risk factors for allergic diseases in high-risk children at the ages of two and five years. International archives of allergy and immunology. 2011;156(3):339–348. https://doi.org/10.1159/000323907
  16. Harrison H, Spergel J, & Capucilli P. Significance of skin prick test flare measurements in predicting oral food challenge outcomes. Presented at: the American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (ACAAI) AnnualScientific Meeting (Virtual Experience). Abstract. 2020;304. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anai.2020.08.140

How to Cite

Wardana, U. R. K., Endaryanto, A. ., & Prakoeswa , C. R. S. . (2022). The impact of age, gender, family history of allergy, clinical symptoms, and duration of illness on flare diameter of skin prick test. Bali Medical Journal, 11(3), 1706–1709. https://doi.org/10.15562/bmj.v11i3.3870

HTML
7

Total
6

Share

Search Panel

Uuk Riuh Kusuma Wardana
Google Scholar
Pubmed
BMJ Journal


Anang Endaryanto
Google Scholar
Pubmed
BMJ Journal


Cita Rosita Sigit Prakoeswa
Google Scholar
Pubmed
BMJ Journal