Background: Human amnion contains several growth factors, inflammatory inhibitors, collagen and hyaluronic acid, which are proven to accelerate wound healing. The collection, processing, and storage of data have several limitations, especially in remote areas. Nile Tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus) skin contains amino acids, collagen, and tilapia piscidin, which allows it to be used as a xenograft. This study analyzes the effectiveness of tilapia fish skin compared to the fresh human amnion.
Method: Twenty-four rats were divided into three groups. Group, I was a full-thickness wound treated with tilapia skin, group II was treated with fresh human amnion, and group III was a control. On the third day, a punch biopsy was performed. The granulation tissue thickness and collagen density were examined. A wound area measurement and histopathological examination of the entire wound were performed on the seventh day.
Results: The speed of epithelialization in the tilapia group compared to the amnion was not significantly different (p = 0.065). On the third day, histopathologically, the tilapia group formed the same amount of granulation tissue as the amnion group. In the middle section between tilapia, amnion and control with the Kruskal-Wallis test showed no significant difference (p = 0.573). There was no significant difference in collagen density on the third day between the three groups at the edges and in the middle of the wound (p = 0.097 and 0.253). The Mann-Whitney test on the seventh day found that the density of collagen between tilapia and amnion groups was not much different (p = 0.126).
Conclusion: The speed of epithelialization, growth of granulation tissue, and collagen density of wound healing in full-thickness rats were not significantly different between Nile tilapia skin and fresh human amnion. The skin of Nile Tilapia fish can be used for wound care or as a temporary biological dressing until the wound can be permanently closed.