Background: Diabetes mellitus is becoming a public health problem and can be found in every population, including a pregnant women. Hyperglycemia conditions in pregnancy can lead to gestational diabetes mellitus involving proinflammatory cytokines such as Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha (TNF-α) and Transforming Growth Factor- β (TGF-β). Isothiocyanate is a bioactive compound found in Moringa leaf extract with anti-glycemic activity and anti-inflammatory effects. This study aims to evaluate the impact of isothiocyanate therapy on trophoblast cell culture-hyperglycemia atmosphere toward the levels of tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF-α) and transforming growth factor- β (TGF-β).
Methods: An experimental study with a post-test-only control group design was conducted using trophoblast cell culture from placental tissue. To create a gestational diabetes event, glucose was administered into the trophoblast cell culture. The sample was divided into six groups: negative control without treatment, positive control by glucose administration, and treatment groups P1, P2, P3 and P4 with the treatment of isothiocyanate with doses of 0.1; 0.2; 0.4 and 0.8 mg/ml, respectively. The TNF-α and TGF-β levels in each group are quantified using immunoassay by ELISA method.
Results: The mean TNF-α in the negative control, positive control, P1, P2, P3, and P4 groups were 20.59, 43.54, 32.76, 30.15, 27.32, and 24.05, respectively. While the mean of TGF-β levels in the negative control, positive control, P1, P2, P3, and P4 groups were 15.76, 10.44, 11.05, 11.70, 12.46, and 14.32, respectively. The lowest TNF-α and the highest TGF-β levels were found in the treatment group (P4) that received isothiocyanate with a dose of 0.8 mg/ml.
Conclusion: The administration of isothiocyanates from Moringa leaf extract significantly lowered the level of TNF-α and increased the level of TGF-β in hyperglycemic trophoblast cell culture compared with the positive control group.