Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer

Levels of anxiety and depression of students and responses to online learning methods during the COVID-19 pandemic

Abstract

Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected various aspects of human life, including education. Educational institutions, including medical faculty, are trying to use the online learning approach to continue teaching and learning. Although it has many advantages due to its flexibility, there are also some disadvantages. Previous studies have shown that online learning is significantly related to student psychological disorders such as stress, anxiety to depression, thereby reducing social skills and competence in medical students. This study aims to determine the level of anxiety and depression in students of the Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Udayana Medical Education Study Program, during the COVID-19 pandemic and responses to the online learning system.

Methods: This study used a cross-sectional design. The questionnaire was compiled using the Indonesian version of the Health and Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS) and distributed online. Data were analyzed using the SPSS ver.23 program by performing the chi-square test, with a p <0.05, considered statistically significant.

Results: Based on demographic characteristics, it was found that female students got more anxiety symptoms than male students (74.8% vs. 25.2%, p=0.009), and preclinical students experienced more depression than clinical students (95.2% vs. 4.8%, p=0.037). Students who experience symptoms of anxiety and depression, as well as normal, are dominated by poor learning responses (66.3% vs. 33.7%). Study programs, family income, place of residence, and semester level do not influence anxiety and depression in students.

Conclusion: The COVID-19 pandemic situation has led to poor learning responses in medical students, both those experiencing symptoms of anxiety/depression and students without symptoms (normal).

References

  1. Manuaba IBAP, Supadmanaba IGP, Darmayani IGAS, Sindhughosa DA, Yani MVW. Medical education system in Coronavirus Disease 2019 ( COVID-19 ) pandemic : what has been changed from the past era ? Bali Med J. 2022;11(1):7–10.
  2. Manuaba IBAP, Supadmanaba GP, Darmayani IGAS, Yani MVW, Remitha NPSI, Sasmana IGAP, et al. Maintaining the quality of problem-based learning in developing countries during the pandemic era.
  3. GBD. Global, regional, and national burden of 12 mental disorders in 204 countries and territories, 1990–2019: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019. The Lancet Psychiatry. 2022;9(2):137–50.
  4. Miller DG, Pierson L, Doernberg S. The Role of Medical Students during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Ann Intern Med. 2020;173(2):145–6.
  5. Wheelan. First-Year Students Need Time to Grieve. J Hand Ther. 2020;2(1):43.
  6. Mian A, Khan S. Medical education during pandemics: a UK perspective. BMC Med. 2020;18(1):100. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32268900
  7. Manuaba IBAP, -No Y, Wu C-C. The effectiveness of problem based learning in improving critical thinking, problem-solving and self-directed learning in first-year medical students: A meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2022;17(11):e0277339. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0277339
  8. Halperin SJ, Henderson MN, Prenner S, Grauer JN. Prevalence of Anxiety and Depression Among Medical Students During the Covid-19 Pandemic: A Cross-Sectional Study. J Med Educ Curric Dev. 2021;8:238212052199115.
  9. Elashoff JD, Lemeshow S. Sample Size Determination in Epidemiologic Studies. In: Ahrens W, Pigeot I, editors. Handbook of Epidemiology. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg; 2005. p. 559–94.
  10. Rudy M, Widyadharma IPE, Adnyana IMO. Reliability indonesian version of the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS) of stroke patients in sanglah general hospital denpasar. Res Gatee. 2015;2(July):1–23.
  11. Livana, Mubin, & Basthomi Y. Penyebab Stres Mahasiswa Selama Pandemi Covid-19. J Ilmu Keperawatan Jiwa. 2020;3(2):203–8.
  12. Yani MVW, Pratiwi MSA, Putra AIYD, Diniari NKS. Depression, Anxiety, and Stress due to Changes in Employment Status during COVID-19 Pandemic: A Study in Badung Districts, Bali, Indonesia. Int J Integr Heal Sci. 2022;10(1):12–9.
  13. Rahmayani RD, Liza RG, Syah NA. Gambaran Tingkat Stres Berdasarkan Stressor pada Mahasiswa Kedokteran Tahun Pertama Program Studi Profesi Dokter Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Andalas Angkatan 2017. J Kesehat Andalas. 2019;8(1):103.
  14. Nabila AA, Mahmuda INN, Sulistyani, Herdaetha A. Anxiety Levels of Undergraduate and Clerkship Medical Students during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Ulum Islam. 2021;49(April 2020):91–102.
  15. Awadalla NJ, Alsabaani AA, Alsaleem MA, Alsaleem SA, Alshaikh AA, Al-Fifi SH, et al. Increased mental stress among undergraduate medical students in south-western Saudi Arabia during the COVID-19 pandemic. PeerJ. 2022;10:1–14.
  16. Saraswathi I, Saikarthik J, Senthil Kumar K, Madhan Srinivasan K, Ardhanaari M, Gunapriya R. Impact of COVID-19 outbreak on the mental health status of undergraduate medical students in a COVID-19 treating medical college: a prospective longitudinal study. PeerJ. 2020;8:e10164.
  17. Tejoyuwono AAT, Nugraha RP, Fahdi FK. The effect of mental health status on the quality of life of faculty of medicine students during the pandemic coronavirus disease 2019 period. Open Access Maced J Med Sci. 2021;9(E):645–52.
  18. Carreras G, Lugo A, Stival C, Amerio A, Odone A, Pacifici R, et al. Impact of COVID-19 lockdown on smoking consumption in a large representative sample of Italian adults. Tob Control. 2022;31(5):615–22.
  19. Koopmann A, Georgiadou E, Reinhard I, Müller A, Lemenager T, Kiefer F, et al. The Effects of the Lockdown during the COVID-19 Pandemic on Alcohol and Tobacco Consumption Behavior in Germany. Eur Addict Res. 2021;27(4):242–56.
  20. Sekartaji M, Sari RP, Irsan M, Adnan M, Aquaira LP, Farahiya SR, et al. Relationship between anxiety and insomnia in clinical clerkship students during COVID-19 pandemic. J Community Empower Heal. 2021;4(1):21.
  21. Quek TT-C, Tam WW-S, Tran BX, Zhang M, Zhang Z, Ho CS-H, et al. The Global Prevalence of Anxiety Among Medical Students: A Meta-Analysis. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019;16(15).
  22. Chou Y, Agus D, Juliawati DJ. Perbedaan Proporsi Gangguan Depresi dan Gangguan Cemas Antara Mahasiswa Preklinik dan Klinik. J Pendidik Kedokt Indones Indones J Med Educ. 2017;6(3):146.
  23. Blais FC, Morin CM, Boisclair A, Grenier V, Guay B. [Insomnia. Prevalence and treatment of patients in general practice]. Can Fam Physician. 2001;47:759–67.
  24. Léger D, Partinen M, Hirshkowitz M, Chokroverty S, Hedner J. Characteristics of insomnia in a primary care setting: EQUINOX survey of 5293 insomniacs from 10 countries. Sleep Med. 2010;11(10):987–98.
  25. Jamil H, Alakkari M, Al-Mahini MS, Alsayid M, Al Jandali O. The Impact of Anxiety and Depression on Academic Performance: A Cross-Sectional Study among Medical Students in Syria. Avicenna J Med. 2022;12(3):111–9.
  26. Staner. Sleep and Anxiety Disorders. Synopsis Sleep Med. 2022;(September 2003):201–12.
  27. Ohayon MM, Roth T. Place of chronic insomnia in the course of depressive and anxiety disorders. J Psychiatr Res. 2003;37(1):9–15.
  28. Chowdhury S, Chakraborty P pratim. Universal health coverage ‑ There is more to it than meets the eye. J Fam Med Prim Care. 2017;6(2):169–70.
  29. Awadalla S, Davies EB, Glazebrook C. A longitudinal cohort study to explore the relationship between depression, anxiety and academic performance among Emirati university students. BMC Psychiatry. 2020;20(1):448.
  30. Barbosa-Camacho FJ, Romero-Limón OM, Ibarrola-Peña JC, Almanza-Mena YL, Pintor-Belmontes KJ, Sánchez-López VA, et al. Depression, anxiety, and academic performance in COVID-19: a cross-sectional study. BMC Psychiatry. 2022;22(1):443.

How to Cite

Manuaba, I. B. A. P., Darmayani, I. G. A. S. ., Sindhughosa, D. A. ., Yani, M. V. W., Remitha, N. P. S. I. ., Sasmana, I. G. A. P. ., Sudira, P. G. ., & Supadmanaba, I. G. P. . (2023). Levels of anxiety and depression of students and responses to online learning methods during the COVID-19 pandemic. Bali Medical Journal, 12(1), 550–555. https://doi.org/10.15562/bmj.v12i1.4032

HTML
8

Total
6

Share

Search Panel

Ida Bagus Amertha Putra Manuaba
Google Scholar
Pubmed
BMJ Journal


I Gusti Ayu Sri Darmayani
Google Scholar
Pubmed
BMJ Journal


Dwijo Anargha Sindhughosa
Google Scholar
Pubmed
BMJ Journal


Made Violin Weda Yani
Google Scholar
Pubmed
BMJ Journal


Ni Putu Sri Indrani Remitha
Google Scholar
Pubmed
BMJ Journal


I Gede Aswin Parisya Sasmana
Google Scholar
Pubmed
BMJ Journal


Putu Gede Sudira
Google Scholar
Pubmed
BMJ Journal


I Gede Putu Supadmanaba
Google Scholar
Pubmed
BMJ Journal