Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer

Balinese purnajiwa (Kopsia arborea Blume.) extract stimulates male rats' sexual behavior and plasma testosterone level


Introduction: Purnajiwa (Kopsia arborea Blume.) fruit has been traditionally used to improve male sexuality. This study aims to evaluate the potential of K.arborea ethanolic extract to stimulate rats' sexual behavior and testosterone.

Methods: This study used 25 healthy male and 25 female albino rats (Rattus novegicus), aged 15 weeks, and weighed 220-230g. Rats were divided into five groups, with five replications for each group. The phytoconstituent was quantified and analyzed using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GCMS). The sexual behaviors (mount and intromission frequency) and testosterone levels were evaluated in adult male Wistar rats. Three doses of extract (300, 200, and 100 mg/kg BW orally) were compared to sildenafil citrate as standard. Data were statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Post Hoc Tukey Honestly Significant Difference (HSD) Test, using IBM SPSS Statistics version 25

Results: Vincadifformine alkaloid was detected as the dominant compound. Treatment of the extract increased all parameters suggestive of dose dependence. Twenty-six days of administration of 300 mg/kg BW of extract produced the highest increase of mount and intromission frequency, higher and similar to sildenafil citrate. Treatment of K.arborea also showed increased testosterone, suggestive of dose dependence.

Conclusion: K.arborea fruit stimulates sexual behavior and plasma testosterone. Nevertheless, further investigation, safety analysis, and mechanism study are required.


  1. Yafi FA, Jenkins L, Albersen M, Corona G, Isidori AM, Goldfarb S, et al. Erectile dysfunction. Nat Rev Dis Prim. 2016;2:16003.
  2. Goldstein I, Goren A, Li VW, Tang WY, Hassan TA. Epidemiology Update of Erectile Dysfunction in Eight Countries with High Burden. Sex Med Rev [Internet]. 2020;8(1):48–58. Available from:
  3. Hatzimouratidis K, Amar E, Eardley I, Giuliano F, Hatzichristou D, Montorsi F, et al. Guidelines on male sexual dysfunction: erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation. Eur Urol. 2010;57(5):804–14.
  4. Irfan M, Hussain NHN, Noor NM, Mohamed M, Sidi H, Ismail SB. Epidemiology of Male Sexual Dysfunction in Asian and European Regions: A Systematic Review. Am J Mens Health. 2020;14(4).
  5. Birowo P, Deswanto IA, Rasyid N. Epidemiology of erectile dysfunction: A cross-sectional web-based survey conducted in an Indonesian national referral hospital. F1000Research. 2019;8:817.
  6. McMahon CG. Current diagnosis and management of erectile dysfunction. Med J Aust. 2019;210(10):469–76.
  7. Aytac IA, McKinlay B, Krane RJ. The likely worldwide increase in erectile dysfunction between 1995 and 2025 and some possible policy consequences. BJU Int. 1999;84:50–6.
  8. Hawksworth DJ, Burnett AL. Comorbidities, modifiable risk factors, and erectile dysfunction. Encycl Reprod. 2018;4295(00):198–203.
  9. Patel DK, Kumar R, Prasad SK, Hemalatha S. Pharmacologically screened aphrodisiac plant-A review of current scientific literature. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2011;1(1):S131–8.
  10. Masuku NP, Unuofin JO, Lebelo SL. Promising role of medicinal plants in the regulation and management of male erectile dysfunction. Biomed Pharmacother. 2020;130(July):110555.
  11. Darma IDP, Priyadi A, Oktavia GAE. Ethnobotany Study Of Communities Of Forest Area Around Buyan And Tamblingan Lake, Buleleng, Bali. Bumi Lestari J Environ. 2019;19(1):15.
  12. Chen XD, Hu J, Li JX, Chi FS. Cytotoxic monoterpenoid indole alkaloids from the aerial part of Kopsia arborea. J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2020;22(11):1024–30.
  13. Wong SK, Yeap JSY, Tan CH, Sim KS, Lim SH, Low YY, et al. Arbolodinines A−C, biologically-active aspidofractinine-aspidofractinine, aspidofractinine-strychnan, and kopsine-strychnan bisindole alkaloids from Kopsia arborea. Tetrahedron. 2021;78:131802.
  14. Do QD, Angkawijaya AE, Tran-Nguyen PL, Huynh LH, Soetaredjo FE, Ismadji S, et al. Effect of extraction solvent on total phenol content, total flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity of Limnophila aromatica. J Food Drug Anal. 2014;22(3):296–302.
  15. McDonald S, Prenzler PD, Antolovich M, Robards K. Phenolic content and antioxidant activity of olive extracts. Food Chem. 2001;73(1):73–84.
  16. Roghini R, Vijayalakshmi K. Phytochemical Screening, Quantitative Analysis of Flavonoids and Minerals in Ethanolic Extract of Citrus paradisi. Int J Pharm Sci Res. 2018;9(11):4859–64.
  17. Sasadara MMV, Wirawan IGP, Jawi IM, Sritamin M, Dewi NNA, Adi AAAM. Anti-inflammatory effect of red macroalgae bulung sangu (Gracilaria sp.) extract in UVB-irradiated mice. Pakistan J Biol Sci. 2021;24(1):80–9.
  18. Dabhadkar D, Zade V. Evaluation of the Potential Aphrodisiac Activity of Psoralea corylifolia in Male Albino Rats. Asian J Biomed Pharm Sci. 2013;3(22):18–27.
  19. Yakubu MT, Akanji MA, Oladiji AT. Aphrodisiac potentials of the aqueous extract of Fadogia agrestis (Schweinf. Ex Hiern) stem in male albino rats. Asian J Androl. 2005;7(4):399–404.
  20. Pan L, Zheng CW, Fang GS, Hong HR, Liu J, Yu LH, et al. Asymmetric Total Synthesis of Vincadifformine Enabled by a Thiourea-Phosphonium Salt Catalyzed Mannich-Type Reaction. Chem - A Eur J. 2019;25(25):6306–10.
  21. Pokrywka A, Obmiński Z, Malczewska-Lenczowska J, Fijałek Z, Turek-Lepa E, Grucza R. Insights into supplements with tribulus terrestris used by athletes. J Hum Kinet. 2014;41(1):99–105.
  22. da Cruz AC, Guerra NG, de Souza KEBP, de Castro Eleutério I, da Silva LC, Otoni EG, et al. The action of herbal medicine on the libido: aspects of nutritional intervention in increasing sexual desire. Nutrire. 2017;42(1):1–8.
  23. Ismail SB, Wan Mohammad WMZ, George A, Nik Hussain NH, Musthapa Kamal ZM, Liske E. Randomized clinical trial on the use of PHYSTA freeze-dried water extract of Eurycoma longifolia for the improvement of quality of life and sexual well-being in men. Evidence-based Complement Altern Med. 2012;2012.
  24. Tillhon M, Guamán Ortiz LM, Lombardi P, Scovassi AI. Berberine: New perspectives for old remedies. Biochem Pharmacol. 2012;84(10):1260–7.
  25. Khanijo T, Jiraungkoorskul W. Review ergogenic effect of long jack, Eurycoma Longifolia. Pharmacogn Rev. 2016;10(20):139–42.
  26. Vyas G, Mathur M, Patel NA, Patel RP. Aphrodisiac efficacy of Blepharis sindica seeds: A comparative assessment using different solvent types. Indian J Biochem Biophys [Internet]. 2017;54(5):223–30. Available from: 54(5) 223-230.pdf
  27. Clovis T, Yaya I, Nga N, Didier DS, Emmanuel MM. Evaluation of aphrodisiac properties of the aqueous extract of the trunk barks of Spathodea campanulata P. Beauv. (Bignoniaceae) on albino rats (Rattus norvegicus). J Med Plants Res. 2019;13(18):480–6.
  28. Erhabor JO, Idu MD. Aphrodisiac potentials of the ethanol extract of Aloe barbadensis Mill. root in male Wistar rats. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2017;17(1):1–10.
  29. Tang X, Olatunji OJ, Zhou Y, Hou X. In vitro and in vivo aphrodisiac properties of the seed extract from Allium tuberosum on corpus cavernosum smooth muscle relaxation and sexual behavior parameters in male Wistar rats. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2017;17(1):1–10.
  30. Kataria S, Kaur D, Rao SK, Khajuria RK. In vitro and in vivo aphrodisiac properties of Corchorus depressus Linn. on rabbit corpus cavernosum smooth muscle relaxation and sexual behavior of normal male rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2013;148(1):210–7.
  31. Ågmo A. Male rat sexual behavior. Brain Res Protoc. 1997;1(2):203–9.
  32. Vyas NY, Raval MA. Aphrodisiac and spermatogenic potential of alkaloidal fraction of Hygrophila spinosa T. Ander in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2016;194:947–53.
  33. Chen X, Ge F, Liu J, Bao S, Chen Y, Li D, et al. Diverged effects of piperine on testicular development: Stimulating leydig cell development but inhibiting spermatogenesis in rats. Front Pharmacol. 2018;9:1–13.
  34. Zamblé A, Sahpaz S, Brunet C, Bailleul F. Effects of Microdesmis keayana roots on sexual behavior of male rats. Phytomedicine. 2008;15(8):625–9.
  35. Shamloul R. Natural aphrodisiacs. J Sex Med. 2010;7(1):39–49.
  36. Yakubu MT, Akanji MA. Effect of aqueous extract of massularia acuminata stem on sexual behaviour of male wistar rats. Evidence-based Complement Altern Med. 2011;2011.
  37. Carro-Juárez M, Lobatón I, Benítez O, Espíritu A. Pro-ejaculatory effect of the aqueous crude extract of cihuapatli (Montanoa tomentosa) in spinal male rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2006;106(1):111–6.
  38. Aversa A, Fabbri A. New oral agents for erectile dysfunction: What is changing in our practice? Asian J Androl [Internet]. 2001;3(3):175–9. Available from:

How to Cite

I Gede Putu Wirawan, Sasadara, M. M. V., I Made Jawi, Ida Ayu Putri Darmawati, I Nyoman Wijaya, Anak Agung Keswari Krisnandika, I Gde Nengah Adhilaksman Sunyamurthi, & I Gusti Ngurah Alit Susanta Wirya. (2023). Balinese purnajiwa (Kopsia arborea Blume.) extract stimulates male rats’ sexual behavior and plasma testosterone level. Bali Medical Journal, 12(1), 1026–1032.




Search Panel

I Gede Putu Wirawan
Google Scholar
BMJ Journal

Maria Malida Vernandes Sasadara
Google Scholar
BMJ Journal

I Made Jawi
Google Scholar
BMJ Journal

Ida Ayu Putri Darmawati
Google Scholar
BMJ Journal

I Nyoman Wijaya
Google Scholar
BMJ Journal

Anak Agung Keswari Krisnandika
Google Scholar
BMJ Journal

I Gde Nengah Adhilaksman Sunyamurthi
Google Scholar
BMJ Journal

I Gusti Ngurah Alit Susanta Wirya
Google Scholar
BMJ Journal