Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer

Impact of Abelmoschus esculentus fruit extract on endonuclease_G and apoptosis index in adenocarcinoma mammae. A laboratory experiment: rats given chemotherapy AC


Background. Breast cancer has the highest incidence of cancer in women. The first-line chemotherapy, Adriamycin-cyclophosphamide (AC) has good results, but its efficacy is not optimal. The fruit lectin substance Abelmoschus esculentus has an anti-cancer effect, so it is widely used as a chemotherapy supplement. The aim of the study is to prove Abelmoschus esculentus extract can increase the apoptotic index against chemotherapy

Method. In vivo laboratory trial study, we are using Sprague Dawley female rats aged 28 days with mammary adenocarcinoma induced by DMBA. There are 4 groups, namely; control (K): placebo, treatment1 (P1): AC chemotherapy (Adriamycin 1.5 mg and cyclophosphamide 15 mg), treatment2 (P2): Abelmoschus esculentus extract 150 mg/kgBB/day, and treatment3 (P3): a combination of AC and Abelmoschus esculentus extract.

Results. The P3 group had the highest levels of Endonuclease_G (EndoG) and apoptosis at (38.66 ± 0.73) and (21.03 ± 0.69), respectively. Combination of Abelmoschus esculentus extract with chemotherapeutic agents can improve the anticancer outcome by significantly increasing EndoG expression and apoptosis index (p<0.05) in comparison to other groups.

Conclusion. Extract from Abelmoschus esculentus fruit shows high apoptotic index and EndoG expression which means that this extract can increase the apoptotic response to in vivo in-cyclophosphamide adriamis chemotherapy.


  1. Yin L, Duan J, Bian X, Yu S. Triple-negative breast cancer molecular subtyping and treatment progress. Breast Cancer Res. 2020;22(61):1–13.
  2. Tirkes T, Hollar MA, Tann DOM, Marc D. Response Criteria in Oncologic Imaging: Review of Traditional and New Criteria. RadioGraphics. 2013;22:1323–41.
  3. Nguyen C, Baskaran K, Pupulin A, Ruvinov I, Zaitoon O, Grewal S, et al. Hibiscus flower extract selectively induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells and positively interacts with common chemotherapeutics. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2019;19(98):1–14.
  4. Majumder M, Debnath S, Gajbhiye RL, Saikia R, Gogoi B, Samanta SK, et al. Ricinus communis L . fruit extract inhibits migration / invasion , induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells and arrests tumor progression in vivo. Sci Rep [Internet]. 2019;9(14493):1– 14. Available from:
  5. Zhu X, Xu R, Wang H, Chen J, Tu Z. Structural Properties, Bioactivities, and Applications of Polysaccharides from Okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench]: A Review. J Agric Food Chem. 2020;
  6. Islam S, Debnath KC, Shaon FTU, Das M, Hasan MF, 1. The Role of Active Constituents of Abelmoschus esculentus (Okra) on Tumor Biology : A Review. Int J Sci Res Methodo2018;10(1).
  7. Islam MT. Phytochemical information and pharmacological activities of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus): A literature‐based review. John Wiley Sons. 2019;33:72–80.
  8. SRM's daughter. Effect of Okra Fruit Ethanol Extract (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) On The Growth Of Rat Mamae Tumors (Rattus sp.) Induced By Benzo(a)pyrene. North Sumatra; 2020.
  9. Athira C, Jayaraman J. A review on: A Pharmacological Properties of Abelmoschus Esculentus. World J Pharm Res. 2018;7(12):159–75.
  10. Hayaza S, Puji S, Wahyuningsih A, Kuncoroningrat RJ, Permanasari AA, Husen SA, et al. Anticancer activity of okra raw polysaccharides extracts against human liver cancer cells. Trop J Pharm Res. 2019;18(August):1667–72.
  11. Chaemsawang W, Prasongchean W, Papadopoulos KI, Ritthidej G, Sukrong S, Wattanaarsakit P. The Effect of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) Seed Extract on Human Cancer Cell Lines Delivered in Its Native Form and Loaded in Polymeric Ratslles. Hindawi. 2019;
  12. Deng Y, Li S, Wang M, Chen X, Tian L, Wang L, et al. Flavonoid-rich extracts from okra flowers exert antitumor activity in colorectal cancer through induction of mitochondrial dysfunction-associated apoptosis, senescence and autophagy. R Soc Chem. 2020;
  13. Bistoni G, Farhadi J. Anatomy and physiology of the breast. In: Farhadieh RD, Bulstrode NW, Cugno S, editors. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery: Approaches and Techniques. First. John Wiley and Sons Inc.; 2020.
  14. Tiranti V, Rossi E, Ruiz-Carrillo A, Rossi G, Rocchi M, DiDonato S, Zuffardi O, Zeviani M (Jan 1995). "Chromosomal localization of mitochondrial transcription factor A (TCF6), single-stranded DNA-binding protein (SSBP), and endonuclease G (ENDOG), three human housekeeping genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis". Genomics. 25 (2): 559–64.
  15. Unleashing a novel function of Endonuclease G in mitochondrial genome instability.Dahal S, et al. Elife, 2022 Nov 17. PMID 36394256
  16. Vařecha M, Potěšilová M, Matula P, Kozubek M (Apr 2012). "Endonuclease G interacts with histone H2B and DNA topoisomerase II alpha during apoptosis". Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry. 363 (1–2): 301–7.
  17. Galluzzi L, Joza N, Tasdemir E, Maiuri MC, Hengartner M, Abrams JM, Tavernarakis N, Penninger J, Madeo F, Kroemer G (Jul 2008). "No death without life: vital functions of apoptotic effectors". Cell Death and Differentiation. 15 (7): 1113–23.
  18. Jang DS, Penthala NR, Apostolov EO, Wang X, Crooks PA, Basnakian AG (Feb 2015). "Novel cytoprotective inhibitors for apoptotic endonuclease G". DNA and Cell Biology. 34 (2): 92–100.
  19. Wu SL, Li CC, Chen JC, Chen YJ, Lin CT, Ho TY, Hsiang CY (15 January 2009). "Mutagenesis identifies the critical amino acid residues of human endonuclease G involved in catalysis, magnesium coordination, and substrate specificity". Journal of Biomedical Science. 16: 6.
  20. Seo TW, Lee JS, Yoo SJ (Sep 2014). "Cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein 1 ubiquitinates endonuclease G but does not affect endonuclease G-mediated cell death". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 451 (4): 644–9.
  21. Kendall B. Wallace, Vilma A. Sardão, and Paulo J. Oliveira. Mitochondrial Determinants of Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiomyopathy. Circulation Research. 126(7): 926-41
  22. Wintoko R, Susilo H. The relationship of hormonal receptor, HER-2, and KI-67 changes after administration of anthracycline-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy with the results of histopathological grading in stage III breast cancer patients at Saiful Anwar Malang Regional Public H. Bali Med J. [Internet]. 2019 Dec. 1 [cited 2023 Apr. 28];8(3):S788-S794.
  23. Sidabutar DFM, Budijitno S, Prasetyo A. The effectiveness of multiflora honey to prevent hepatotoxicity in invasive ductal breast cancer patients with FAC chemotherapy. Bali Med J. [Internet]. 2021 Dec. 22 [cited 2023 Apr. 28];10(3):982-7.
  24. Sudarsa IW, Manuaba IBTW, Maliawan S, Sutirtayasa IWP. High Ki-67 and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) Protein Expression as Negative Predictive Factor for Combined Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Young Age Stage III Breast Cancer. Bali Med J. [Internet]. 2016 May 23 [cited 2023 Apr. 28];5(2):226-3.

How to Cite

Budijitno, S. ., Prawiro, S. P. ., Nugroho, E. A. ., Alwi, L. ., & Adiputra, P. A. T. . (2023). Impact of Abelmoschus esculentus fruit extract on endonuclease_G and apoptosis index in adenocarcinoma mammae. A laboratory experiment: rats given chemotherapy AC. Bali Medical Journal, 12(2), 1410–1413.




Search Panel

Selamat Budijitno
Google Scholar
BMJ Journal

Satrio Putra Prawiro
Google Scholar
BMJ Journal

Eriawan Agung Nugroho
Google Scholar
BMJ Journal

Luqman Alwi
Google Scholar
BMJ Journal

Putu Anda Tusta Adiputra
Google Scholar
BMJ Journal