Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer

Ideas for research in a saturated field, through bibliometric analysis of the effect of Momordica charantia on the brain


Link of Video Abstract:


Introduction: Momordica charantia, known as bitter melon, has long been used in traditional medicine and is proven to have various health benefits. Recent research has demonstrated the possible impact of Momordica charantia on the brain. However, there is currently a dearth of research investigating the correlation between Momordica charantia and stem cells. The objective of this bibliometric analysis is to uncover prevailing patterns and unexplored research domains.

Methods: The bibliometric analysis data were gathered from the website using the search terms "Momordica charantia" and "brain." Data obtained was further processed using the Biblioshiny and VOSviewer apps to generate visual representations and do quantitative analysis.

Results: The study yields the identification of authors and documents with the highest number of citations, emerging patterns in research, affiliations, and countries with the greatest contributions to document production, as well as publications that publish papers with the most often cited documents. Data visualisation encompasses several techniques such as thematic mapping, clustering, network visualisation, overlay visualisation, and density visualisation

Conclusions: The study results indicate potential avenues for research on the impact of Momordica charantia on stem cells. Additional investigation is required to examine the therapeutic capacity of Momordica charantia in the field of neurology, specifically in relation to stem cells.


  1. Ahmed I, Lakhani MS, Gillett M, John A, Raza H. Hypotriglyceridemic and hypocholesterolemic effects of anti-diabetic Momordica charantia (karela) fruit extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2001;51(3):155-61.
  2. Ansari NM, Houlihan L, Hussain B, Pieroni A. Antioxidant activity of five vegetables traditionally consumed by South-Asian migrants in Bradford, Yorkshire, UK. Phytother Res. 2005;19(10):907-11.
  3. Araba BG. Stimulation of protein biosynthesis in rat hepatocytes by extracts of Momordica charantia. Phytother Res. 2001;15(2):95-8.
  4. Bangar A, Khan H, Kaur A, Dua K, Singh TG. Understanding mechanistic aspect of the therapeutic role of herbal agents on neuroplasticity in cerebral ischemic-reperfusion injury. J Ethnopharmacol. 2024;319:117153.
  5. Bano F, Akhter N. Hypophagic and weight reducing effect of Momardica charinta fruit by Enhancing 5-HT neurotransmitter in rats brain. Pak J Pharm Sci. 2020;33:2439-43.
  6. Bhatti HB, Gogtay NJ, Kochar NR, Dalvi SS, Kshirsagar NA. Adverse drug reactions to Indian traditional remedies: past, present and future. Adverse Drug Reaction Bulletin. 2004(225):1-4.
  7. Bilal M, Iqbal MS, Shah SB, Rasheed T, Iqbal HMN. Diabetic complications and insight into antidiabetic potentialities of ethno- medicinal plants: A review. Recent Pat Inflamm Allergy Drug Discov. 2018;12(1):7-23.
  8. Cai H, Huang LY, Hong R, Song JX, Guo XJ, Zhou W, et al. Momordica charantia exosome-like nanoparticles exert neuroprotective effects against ischemic brain injury via inhibiting matrix metalloproteinase 9 and activating the AKT/GSK3β signaling pathway. Front Pharmacol. 2022;13:908830.
  9. Comhaire F, Deslypere JP. News and views in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS): The role of co-morbidity and novel treatments. Med Hypotheses. 2020;134:109444.
  10. Corrie L, Singh S, Gulati M, Awasthi A, Khursheed R, Vishwas S. Improvement in polycystic ovarian syndrome using pharmacological and non- pharmacological approaches: Current perspectives and principles. Current Womens Health Reviews. 2022;18:11-8(8).
  11. Deniz Ö G, Kaplan S. The effects of different herbals on the rat hippocampus exposed to electromagnetic field for one hour during the prenatal period. J Chem Neuroanat. 2022;119:102043.
  12. Dhar P, Bhattacharyya DK. Nutritional characteristics of oil containing conjugated octadecatrienoic fatty acid. Ann Nutr Metab. 1998;42(5):290-6.
  13. Dhar P, Ghosh S, Bhattacharyya DK. Dietary effects of natural conjugated triene fatty acid in comparison with trans fatty acids of hydrogenated fat on plasma and tissue lipid profile. Journal of Oleo Science. 2004;53(2):57-62.
  14. Dong Q, Lin X, Shen L, Feng Y. The protective effect of herbal polysaccharides on ischemia-reperfusion injury. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 2016;92:431-40.
  15. Duan ZZ, Zhou XL, Li YH, Zhang F, Li FY, Su-Hua Q. Protection of Momordica charantia polysaccharide against intracerebral hemorrhage-induced brain injury through JNK3 signaling pathway. J Recept Signal Transduct Res. 2015;35(6):523-9.
  16. El Hajj M, Holst L. Herbal medicine use during pregnancy: A review of the literature with a special focus on Sub-Saharan Africa. Frontiers in Pharmacology. 2020;11:866.
  17. El-Sayyad HIH. Cholesterol overload impairing cerebellar function: The promise of natural products. Nutrition. 2015;31(5):621-30.
  18. Erdogan K, Eroglu O. The extract of Momordica charantia inhibits cell proliferation and migration in U87G cells. Biology Bulletin. 2022;49(1):S31-8.
  19. Fang C, Xu H, Yuan L, Zhu Z, Wang X, Liu Y, et al. Natural compounds for SIRT1-mediated oxidative stress and neuroinflammation in stroke: A potential therapeutic target in the future. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2022;2022:1949718.
  20. Gokani S, Bhatt LK. Caveolin-1: A promising therapeutic target for diverse diseases. Curr Mol Pharmacol. 2022;15(5):701-15.
  21. Gong J, Sun F, Li Y, Zhou X, Duan Z, Duan F, et al. Momordica charantia polysaccharides could protect against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury through inhibiting oxidative stress mediated c-Jun N-terminal kinase 3 signaling pathway. Neuropharmacology. 2015;91:123-34.
  22. Guo D, Zhou J, Zhang M, Taximaimaiti R, Wang X-P, Wang H. Momordica charantia polysaccharides attenuates MPP+-induced injury in Parkinson’s disease mice and cell models by regulating TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB pathway. International Journal of Polymer Science. 2021;2021:1-15.
  23. Hu Z, Li F, Zhou X, Zhang F, Huang L, Gu B, et al. Momordica charantia polysaccharides modulate the differentiation of neural stem cells via SIRT1/Β-catenin axis in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. Stem Cell Res Ther. 2020;11(1):485.
  24. Hu Z, Li F, Zhou X, Zhang F, Huang L, Gu B, et al. Momordica charantia polysaccharides modulate the differentiation of neural stem cells via SIRT1/Β-catenin axis in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. Stem Cell Research & Therapy. 2020;11(1):485.
  25. Huang H, Chen F, Long R, Huang G. The antioxidant activities in vivo of bitter gourd polysaccharide. Int J Biol Macromol. 2020;145:141-4.
  26. Jiratchariyakul W, Mahady GB. Overview of botanical status in EU, USA, and Thailand. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013;2013:480128.
  27. Kao Y, Chou CH, Huang LC, Tsai CK. Momordicine I suppresses glioma growth by promoting apoptosis and impairing mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Excli j. 2023;22:482-98.
  28. Karalis V, Bateup HS. Current approaches and future directions for the treatment of mTORopathies. Dev Neurosci. 2021;43(3-4):143-58.
  29. Uma KV, Martin JV, Sutheeswaran G, Rajeshkumar R, Ponnusankar S. Molecular docking and in-silico predictive analysis of potential herb-drug interactions between Momordica charantia and Empagliflozin. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science. 2023;13:175-82.
  30. Kavitha N, Babu SM, Rao ME. Influence of Momordica charantia on oxidative stress-induced perturbations in brain monoamines and plasma corticosterone in albino rats. Indian J Pharmacol. 2011;43(4):424-8.
  31. Kola P, Metowogo K, Kantati YT, Lawson-Evi P, Kpemissi M, El-Hallouty SM, et al. Ethnopharmacological survey on medicinal plants used by traditional healers in Central and Kara Regions of Togo for antitumor and chronic wound healing effects. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2020;2020:6940132.
  32. Kung WM, Lin MS. Beneficial impacts of alpha-eleostearic acid from wild bitter melon and curcumin on promotion of CDGSH iron-sulfur domain 2: Therapeutic roles in cns injuries and diseases. Int J Mol Sci. 2021;22(7):3289.
  33. Anggadiredja K, Garmana AN. Bitter melon juice concentrate improves depressive symptoms in a mouse model: Possible effect on brain cortisol. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science. 2022;12:156-60.
  34. Li L, Li X, Han R, Wu M, Ma Y, Chen Y, et al. Therapeutic potential of chinese medicine for endogenous neurogenesis: A promising candidate for stroke treatment. Pharmaceuticals (Basel). 2023;16(5):706.
  35. Lis-Balchin M. Serious adverse effects between herbal remedies and conventional drugs taken simultaneously. J R Soc Promot Health. 2002;122(4):210.
  36. Ma J, Fan H, Cai H, Hu Z, Zhou X, Li F, et al. Promotion of Momordica Charantia polysaccharides on neural stem cell proliferation by increasing SIRT1 activity after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in rats. Brain Res Bull. 2021;170:254-63.
  37. Mahrosh HS, Mehmood R, Bukhari SA, Afzal G, Arif R. Investigation of hypoglycemic peptides derived from conserved regions of adMc1 to reveal their antidiabetic activities. Biomed Res Int. 2021;2021:5550180.
  38. Malik ZA, Singh M, Sharma PL. Neuroprotective effect of Momordica charantia in global cerebral ischemia and reperfusion induced neuronal damage in diabetic mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011;133(2):729-34.
  39. Meng H, Jin W, Yu L, Xu S, Wan H, He Y. Protective effects of polysaccharides on cerebral ischemia: A mini-review of the mechanisms. Int J Biol Macromol. 2021;169:463-72.
  40. Musthaba M, Baboota S, Athar TM, Thajudeen KY, Ahmed S, Ali J. Patented herbal formulations and their therapeutic applications. Recent Pat Drug Deliv Formul. 2010;4(3):231-44.
  41. Muthiah I, Rajendran K, Dhanaraj P. In silico molecular docking and physicochemical property studies on effective phytochemicals targeting GPR116 for breast cancer treatment. Mol Cell Biochem. 2021;476(2):883-96.
  42. Nerurkar PV, Johns LM, Buesa LM, Kipyakwai G, Volper E, Sato R, et al. Momordica charantia (bitter melon) attenuates high-fat diet-associated oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. J Neuroinflammation. 2011;8:64.
  43. Okada Y, Okada M. Protective effects of plant seed extracts against amyloid β-induced neurotoxicity in cultured hippocampal neurons. J Pharm Bioallied Sci. 2013;5(2):141-7.
  44. Onaolapo AY, Onaolapo OJ. African plants with antidiabetic potentials: Beyond glycaemic control to central nervous system benefits. Curr Diabetes Rev. 2020;16(5):419-37.
  45. Ooi CP, Yassin Z, Hamid TA. Momordica charantia for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012(8):Cd007845.
  46. Over KF, Hettiarachchy N, Johnson MG, Davis B. Effect of organic acids and plant extracts on Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella Typhimurium in broth culture model and chicken meat systems. J Food Sci. 2009;74(9):M515-21.
  47. Oyeleye SI, Olasehinde TA, Fasakin OW, Oboh G, Saliu JA-J. Phyllanthus amarus Schumach. & Thonn. and Momordica charantia L extracts improve memory function, attenuate cholinergic and purinergic dysfunction, and suppress oxidative stress in the brain of doxorubicin–treated rats. Phytomedicine Plus. 2022;2(2):100283.
  48. Paramashivam S, Balasubramaniam S, Dhiraviam KN. Computational exploration of vicine - an alkaloid glycoside mediated pathological hallmark of adenosine kinase to promote neurological disorder. Metab Brain Dis. 2021;36(4):653-67.
  49. Patel SS, Udayabanu M. Effect of natural products on diabetes associated neurological disorders. Rev Neurosci. 2017;28(3):271-93.
  50. Patil R, Patil R, Ahirwar B, Ahirwar D. Current status of Indian medicinal plants with antidiabetic potential: a review. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine. 2011;1:S291-8.
  51. Rathi SS, Grover JK, Vats V. The effect of Momordica charantia and Mucuna pruriens in experimental diabetes and their effect on key metabolic enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism. Phytother Res. 2002;16(3):236-43.
  52. Raza H, Ahmed I, John A, Sharma AK. Modulation of xenobiotic metabolism and oxidative stress in chronic streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats fed with Momordica charantia fruit extract. J Biochem Mol Toxicol. 2000;14(3):131-9.
  53. Richter E, Geetha T, Burnett D, Broderick TL, Babu JR. The effects of Momordica charantia on type 2 diabetes mellitus and Alzheimer's disease. Int J Mol Sci. 2023;24(5):4643.
  54. Saati S, Dehghan P, Azizi-Soleiman F, Mobasseri M. The effect of bitter almond (Amygdalus communis L. var. Amara) gum as a functional food on metabolic profile, inflammatory markers, and mental health in type 2 diabetes women: a blinded randomized controlled trial protocol. Trials. 2023;24(1):35.
  55. Saha SS, Chakraborty A, Ghosh S, Ghosh M. Comparative study of hypocholesterolemic and hypolipidemic effects of conjugated linolenic acid isomers against induced biochemical perturbations and aberration in erythrocyte membrane fluidity. Eur J Nutr. 2012;51(4):483-95.
  56. Saha SS, Dasgupta P, Sengupta Bandyopadhyay S, Ghosh M. Synergistic effect of conjugated linolenic acid isomers against induced oxidative stress, inflammation and erythrocyte membrane disintegrity in rat model. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012;1820(12):1951-70.
  57. Saha SS, Ghosh M. Antioxidant effect of vegetable oils containing conjugated linolenic acid isomers against induced tissue lipid peroxidation and inflammation in rat model. Chem Biol Interact. 2011;190(2-3):109-20.
  58. Samaddar S. Momordica charantia (Karela): The miracle food for diabetes and brain health. 2014:277-86. Available from:
  59. Sarkar PK, Chaudhari S, Chattopadhyay A. Concept of interactions between consumable substances in Ayurveda with special reference to foods and drugs. Drug Metabol Drug Interact. 2013;28(3):147-52.
  60. Shanmugam KR, Shanmugam B, Subbaiah GV, Ravi S, Reddy KS. Medicinal plants and bioactive compounds for diabetes management: Important advances in drug discovery. Curr Pharm Des. 2021;27(6):763-74.
  61. Shvedova MV, Anfinogenova YD, Shchepetkin IA, Atochin DN. c-Jun N-Terminal kinases and their pharmacological modulation in ischemic and reperfusion brain injury. Neuroscience and Behavioral Physiology. 2018;48(6):721-8.
  62. Sudheer S, Gangwar P, Usmani Z, Sharma M, Sharma VK, Sana SS, et al. Shaping the gut microbiota by bioactive phytochemicals: An emerging approach for the prevention and treatment of human diseases. Biochimie. 2022;193:38-63.
  63. Suswidiantoro V, Azmi NU, Lukmanto D, Saputri FC, Mun'im A, Jusuf AA. The neuroprotective potential of turmeric rhizome and bitter melon on aspartame-induced spatial memory impairment in rats. Heliyon. 2023;9(11):e21693.
  64. Tao T, Liu M, Chen M, Luo Y, Wang C, Xu T, et al. Natural medicine in neuroprotection for ischemic stroke: Challenges and prospective. Pharmacol Ther. 2020;216:107695.
  65. Thenmozhi AJ, Subramanian P. Antioxidant potential of Momordica Charantia in ammonium chloride-induced hyperammonemic rats. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2011;2011:612023.
  66. Turner N, Zeng XY, Osborne B, Rogers S, Ye JM. Repurposing drugs to target the diabetes epidemic. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2016;37(5):379-89.
  67. Uchida M, Nagashima K, Akatsuka Y, Murakami T, Ito A, Imai S, et al. Comparative study of protective activities of Neospora caninum bradyzoite antigens, NcBAG1, NcBSR4, NcMAG1, and NcSAG4, in a mouse model of acute parasitic infection. Parasitol Res. 2013;112(2):655-63.
  68. Udrea AM, Gradisteanu Pircalabioru G, Boboc AA, Mares C, Dinache A, Mernea M, et al. Advanced bioinformatics tools in the pharmacokinetic profiles of natural and synthetic compounds with anti-diabetic activity. Biomolecules. 2021;11(11):1692.
  69. Vijayalakshmi B, Kumar GS, Salimath PV. Effect of bitter gourd and spent turmeric on glycoconjugate metabolism in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Diabetes Complications. 2009;23(1):71-6.
  70. Wal P, Singh P, Sinha A. A detailed review of various herbal treatment options for potentially curing or ameliorating pain in diabetic neuropathy. Current Traditional Medicine. 2023;9(2):1-18.
  71. Wang F, Yuan M, Shao C, Ji N, Zhang H, Li C. Momordica charantia-derived extracellular vesicles provide antioxidant protection in ulcerative colitis. Molecules. 2023;28(17):6182.
  72. Wu S-J, Ng L-T. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of wild bitter melon (Momordica charantia Linn. var. abbreviata Ser.) in Taiwan. LWT - Food Science and Technology. 2008;41(2):323-30.
  73. Yuan Q, Yuan Y, Zheng Y, Sheng R, Liu L, Xie F, et al. Anti-cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury of polysaccharides: A review of the mechanisms. Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy. 2021;137:111303.
  74. Yue J, Guo P, Jin Y, Li M, Hu X, Wang W, et al. Momordica charantia polysaccharide ameliorates D-galactose-induced aging through the Nrf2/β-Catenin signaling pathway. Metab Brain Dis. 2023;38(3):1067-77.
  75. Zambenedetti P, Giordano R, Zatta P. Histochemical localization of glycoconjugates on microglial cells in Alzheimer's disease brain samples by using Abrus precatorius, Maackia amurensis, Momordica charantia, and Sambucus nigra lectins. Exp Neurol. 1998;153(1):167-71.
  76. Zhang T, Yang Y, Liang Y, Jiao X, Zhao C. Beneficial effect of intestinal fermentation of natural polysaccharides. Nutrients. 2018;10(8):1055.

How to Cite

Saleh, A. Y. ., & Prabowo, I. (2024). Ideas for research in a saturated field, through bibliometric analysis of the effect of Momordica charantia on the brain. Bali Medical Journal, 13(1), 675–689.




Search Panel

Arman Yurisaldi Saleh
Google Scholar
BMJ Journal

Imam Prabowo
Google Scholar
BMJ Journal