Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer

Investigating the relationship between attachment styles and addiction severity


Introduction: The results of some studies show that personality patterns in response to stressful stimuli play an important role in the possibility of developing psychological trauma. The present study investigates the relationship between attachment styles and severity of addiction in patients referred to drug rehabilitation center of Dr. Ali Shariati Hospital Fasa in 2016. Method: In this cross-sectional study, by using random sampling method, 150 of those addicts who had referred to drug rehabilitation centers of Shariati Hospital were selected. Therefore, Collins and Read’s standard questionnaire of attachment styles and addiction severity index (ASI) were used to collect data. Data were analyzed with SPSS software version 19, using descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation) and inferential statistics (correlation coefficient and ANOVA). Results: The mean age of subjects was 33.14 ± 2.49 years, and all of them were men. Sixty percent (n = 90) were married and 40% (60 patients) were single. The results of this study showed that the type of drug used by participants is different and most of them use opiates. There was a significant relationship between insecure anxious and ambivalent attachment styles and severity of addiction (p = 0.001). Conclusion: Most addicts have insecure attachment styles including ambivalence and avoidant style. Also, people who have insecure attachment styles, have a more severe addiction. Therefore, it is suggested to the authorities to hold some classes and workshops to increase the awareness of families on the impact of attachment styles on psychological characteristics of individuals, such as addiction.


  1. - Carlson, E, A & Sroufe, L. A. (1995). "Contribution of Attachment Theory to Developmental" New York: Wiley.
  2. - Parolin M, Simonelli A. Attachment Theory and Maternal Drug Addiction: The Contribution to Parenting interventions. Frontiers in Psychiatry. 2016; 7. PubMed PMCID: PMC5004230
  3. - Bowlby J. Attachment and Loss: Vol. 1. Attachment. New York: Basic Books; (1969/1982).
  4. - Bowlby J. Attachment and Loss: Vol. 2. Separation: Anxiety and Anger. New York: Basic Books; (1973).
  5. - Bowlby J. Attachment and Loss: Vol. 3. Sadness and Depression. New York: Basic Books; (1980).
  6. - Khledian M, Garosi MR, Khairkhah Z, Ghalandari S. The Relationship between Attachment Lifestyle with Depression, Hopefulness and Emotional Intelligence. Open Journal of Social Science Research .2013; 1(2):15-21. DOI: 10.12966/ojssr.05.01.2013
  7. - Khodabakhsh M. Attachment styles as predictors of empathy in nursing students. Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine. 2012; 5:8. PubMed PMCID: PMC3715012.
  8. - Bidmon S. How does attachment style influence the brand attachment–brand trust and brand loyalty chain in adolescents?. International Journal of Advertising. 2016 Apr 1:1-26. DOI:
  9. - Bartholomew K, Horowitz LM. Attachment styles among young adults: a test of a four-category model. Journal of personality and social psychology. 1991 Aug;61(2):226. PubMed PMID: 1920064.
  10. - Finzi-Dottan R, Cohen O, Iwaniec D, Sapir Y, Weizman A. The drug-user husband and his wife: Attachment styles, family cohesion, and adaptability. Substance use & misuse. 2003 Jan 1;38(2):271-92. PubMed PMID: 12625431.
  11. - De Rick A, Vanheule S. Attachment styles in alcoholic inpatients. European Addiction Research. 2007;13(2):101-8. PubMed PMID: 17356282.
  12. - Vungkhanching M, Sher KJ, Jackson KM, Parra GR. Relation of attachment style to family history of alcoholism and alcohol use disorders in early adulthood. Drug and alcohol dependence. 2004 Jul 15;75(1):47-53. PubMed PMID: 15225888.
  13. - Keshavarz S, Bahrarudin R. Parentingstyles, depersonalisation, anxiety and coping behaviour inadolescents. Personality and Individual Differences. 2009.
  14. - Ahvan R. The proposed program design based addiction prevention
  15. Perceived impact on the attitude of the adolescents addicted to variety of T. Ed
  16. Son of a juvenile institution Tehran. Allameh Tabatabaei University in Tehran. 2011.
  17. - Zarei E, Zarinalipoor H, Shaikhi Fini AA, Khajezadehfini H, Yousefzadeh M, Moulood S. Relationship between Parent's Attachment Styles and Substance Abuse Disorder in Iranian Male High School Students. Journal of Applied Environmental and Biological Sciences. 2011; 1(9): 337-340.
  18. - Gholami M S, Alipoor R, Zareie T, Rezaieyan F, Hedayati A. Frequency of Side Effects of Methadone Maintenance Therapy in Patients Referred to Fasa Doctor Shariati Hospital. J. Fasa Univ. Med. Sci. 2015; 5 (2):248-256.
  19. - Mokri A, Ekhtiari H, Edalati H, Ganjgahi H. Relationship between Degree of Craving and different Dimensions of Addiction Severity in Heroin Intravenous Users. IJPCP. 2008; 14 (3):298-306.
  20. - Casidy. J. & Shaver, P. R. (1999). "Hand book of Attachment, Theory.Research and Clinical Application London".Routledge.
  21. - Lowinson,J. H; Millman, R. B & Longrod, J. G. (1997). "Substance Abuse: A comprehensive Textbook". New York.Williams& Williams.
  22. - Dozier M, Stovall-McClough KC, Albus KE. Attachment and psychopathology in adulthood.
  23. - Aaron T. Beck, Fred D. Wright, Cory F. Newman, and Bruce S. Liese. (2003). Cognitive therapy of personality disorders. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
  24. - Jazayeri A. Dehghani M. Studying the relationship between the styles of attachment, drug addiction and psychological profile of addicts in comparison with non-addicts (in self-introduced centers of Bushehr Province). 2004; 2 (6):55-66.
  25. - Coleman-Cowger VH, Dennis ML, Funk RR, Godley SH, Lennox RD. Comparison of the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) and the Global Appraisal of Individual Needs (GAIN) in predicting the effectiveness of drug treatment programs for pregnant and postpartum women. Journal of substance abuse treatment. 2013 Jan 31; 44(1):34-41. PubMed PMID:22436533.
  26. - Fleury MJ, Grenier G, Bamvita JM. Variables Associated with Drug and Alcohol Abuse among Male and Female users with Severe Mental Disorders. Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy. 2014 Jun 18; 2014. doi:10.4172/2155-6105.S10-005.
  27. - Guindalini C, Vallada H, Breen G, Laranjeira R. Concurrent crack and powder cocaine users from Sao Paulo: Do they represent a different group?. BMC Public Health. 2006 Jan 20; 6(1):1. PubMed PMCID: PMC1388201
  28. - Avants, S. K, Margolini, A, Kosten, T R, & Coonney, N L. (1995). Differences between responders and nonresponders to cocaine cues in the laboratory. Addictive Behaviors, 20, 215-224. PubMed PMID:7484315.
  29. - Fox HC, Talih M, Malison R, Anderson GM, Kreek MJ, Sinha R. Frequency of recent cocaine and alcohol use affects drug craving and associated responses to stress and drug-related cues. Psych neuroendocrinology. 2005 Oct 31;30(9):880-91. PubMed PMID: 15975729.

How to Cite

Valizadeh, M., Motazedian, S., Kuchi, M. R., & Alipoor, R. (2017). Investigating the relationship between attachment styles and addiction severity. Bali Medical Journal, 6(2), 304–309.




Search Panel

Marzieh Valizadeh
Google Scholar
BMJ Journal

Somayyeh Motazedian
Google Scholar
BMJ Journal

Mohammad Rezaeian Kuchi
Google Scholar
BMJ Journal

Reza Alipoor
Google Scholar
BMJ Journal