Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer

Characterization and Identification of Poliovirus from the Environment in Indonesia 2015

  • Bambang Heriyanto ,
  • Nike Susanti ,
  • Vivi Setiawaty ,

Abstract

Background: Poliomyelitis is a disease caused by the poliovirus which causes abnormalities in the nervous system, commonly affects children and can be prevented by immunization. Since March 27th, 2014, Indonesia has been declared to be free of polio and anticipate the mutation of poliovirus type 2 (vaccine-derived polioviruses / VDPV). Indonesia will change the use of policy vaccines from triOPV to biOPV by erasing the P2 type before switching from OPV to IPV. Before the policy was implemented, it is needed to have research to determine the level of immunity of children against poliovirus and type of poliovirus which circulate in the area of OPV and IPV in Indonesia.

Methods: The research study was conducted in five cities in five provinces in Indonesia in 2015. The serum was taken on 100 children between 12-59 months and feces were taken towards 150 children in the same age range. The examination of antibody titers in serum performed using the method of neutralization.

Result: Research shows that in regions that apply OPV as routine immunization, about 94.5% of children had antibodies against poliovirus type 1, 96.8% against type 2 and 93.3% of type 3. In areas which implement IPV as routine immunization, children have gained 85% immunity against poliovirus type 1, 92% against type 2 and 93% of type 3. In the environments that implement OPV, poliovirus was found in feces specimens (0.5%) or the mixed waste (58%). All the circulating virus is a virus originated from Sabin vaccine which mostly comes from type 2 (85% of mixed waste and 60% of feces).

 

Conclusion: From this study, it can be concluded that sabin polio virus is still circulating in the area which applies OPV as routine immunization and poliovirus type 2 is commonly found there. Immunity inflicted on children varies in each region. Children living in a regular immunization using OPV and IPV had immunity for about 85-90%. 

References

  1. WHO. Poliomyelitis (Polio), Vaccines 2014 diunduh dari ; http://www.who.int/ith/vaccines/ polio/en/ tanggal 18 Juli 2014
  2. WHO. Poliomyelitis. 2014, diunduh dari: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/ factsheet /fs114/en/. tanggal 18 Juli 2014
  3. WHO. South-East Asia Region certified polio-free. 2014 diunduh dari : http:// www. searo. who. int/ entity/tb/en/. tanggal 18 Juli 2014
  4. Soedarmo, S.P. and S. Utoro, Controlling polio outbreak due to imported wild poliovirus in Indonesia: A success story Paediatrica Indonesiana, 2009. 49: p. 234-243.
  5. CDC, Poliovirus Realtime RT-PCR Training Manual. 2014.
  6. Wahjuhono, G., et al., Switch From Oral to Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine in Yogyakarta Province, Indonesia: Summary of Coverage, Immunity, and Environmental Surveillance Journal of Infectious Diseases, 2014.
  7. WR, D., et al., Polio eradication: the OPV paradox. Rev Med Virol, 2003.
  8. WHO. Polio Eradication And Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-2018. 2013 diunduh dari: http://www.polioeradication.org /Portals/0/Document/ Resources/ StrategyWork /EndGameStratPlan_WHA version.pdf. tanggal 18 Juli 2014
  9. WHO. IPV Introduction, OPV Withdrawal and Routine Immunization trengthening. 2014 , diunduh dari: http://www.who.int/immunization/diseases/ poliomyelitis/ inactivated_ polio_ vaccine/vaccines/en/ , tanggal 18 Juli 2014
  10. Wahyuhono, G., et al., Eradikasi Polio dan IPV (Inactivated Polio Vaccine). Media Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan (Litbangkes.), 2010. 20: p. 149-158.
  11. WHO, Polio Laboratory Manual. 4 ed. 2004.
  12. WHO, Guidelines for environmental surveillance of poliovirus circulation. 2003.
  13. Sharif, S., et al., Evolution and Circulation of Type-2 Vaccine-Derived Polioviruses in Nad Ali District of Southern Afghanistan during June 2009-February 2011. PLoS ONE, 2014.
  14. Wassilak, S., et al., Outbreak of Type 2 Vaccine-Derived Poliovirus in Nigeria: Emergence and Widespread Circulation in an Underimmunized Population. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 2011.
  15. Cherkasova, E.A., et al., Long-Term Circulation of Vaccine-Derived Poliovirus That Causes Paralytic Disease. Journal of Virology, 2002. 76: p. 6791–6799
  16. CDC, Update on vaccine-derived polioviruses–worldwide, July 2009–March 2011. 2009. p. 846–850.

How to Cite

Heriyanto, B., Susanti, N., & Setiawaty, V. (2018). Characterization and Identification of Poliovirus from the Environment in Indonesia 2015. Bali Medical Journal, 7(3). https://doi.org/10.15562/bmj.v7i3.963

HTML
7

Total
7

Share

Search Panel